Anesthesia Allergies in Dogs

Anesthesia Allergies in Dogs - Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Recovery, Management, Cost
Anesthesia Allergies in Dogs - Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Recovery, Management, Cost

What are Anesthesia Allergies?

Surgery and other necessary veterinary procedures often require anesthesia. Derived from the Greek word for “lack of sensation,” anesthesia refers to drug administration that reduces pain and feeling in all or part of the body. With procedures that require general anesthesia, the veterinarian will give your dog drugs that depress the nervous system enough to induce complete lack of consciousness. Other local anesthesia techniques may be used to numb a specific area of the body for a minor operation. Both types of anesthesia reduce your dog’s pain and allow the veterinarian to perform invasive procedures that require a high level of precision. General anesthesia is used more commonly in dogs and other small animals.

The majority of procedures that require anesthesia are accomplished with no incident, however, the rate of anesthesia death in pets is higher than humans, with one study suggesting approximately 1 in 400 animals (0.25 %) experience some type of fatal complication. As with any drug, there is a risk of adverse reaction to the drug itself, but most anesthesia deaths are not related to allergies. It’s estimated that only 1 in 100,000 pets has an allergic response to anesthesia medications. The most common symptom is mild swelling at the injection site, but more serious reactions like decreased cardiac function and even anaphylactic shock are possible. An anaphylactic reaction is a severe life-threatening allergic response which can cause respiratory and circulatory failure. Anesthesia drugs are not commonly a trigger for anaphylaxis, but it’s possible with sensitive individuals.

Anesthesia can allow veterinarians to perform surgeries and procedures that are vital for your dog’s health. Complications are rare, but some dogs can experience an allergic reaction to the drugs used to induce anesthesia. Responses range from mild irritation at the injection site to rare but serious anaphylactic shock.

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Anesthesia Allergies Average Cost

From 465 quotes ranging from $452 - $1,030

Average Cost

$1,570

Symptoms of Anesthesia Allergies in Dogs

These are the symptoms the veterinarian and surgery assistant will be looking for as your dog undergoes anesthesia.

  • Redness at the injection site
  • Swelling at the injection site
  • Drop in blood pressure
  • Drop in pulse rate
  • Cardiac or respiratory arrest
  • Anaphylactic shock which is rare (excessive swelling, difficulty breathing, death)

Types

Veterinarians choose from numerous drug combinations used to induce anesthesia. An approach called ‘balanced anesthesia’ is most common for general anesthesia. The patient will receive a pre-anesthetic sedative via injection, followed by another injection containing the induction agent. A mixture of gas and oxygen will be administered through a tube in the windpipe to maintain anesthesia during surgery. A local anesthetic procedure would likely just include a single injection. Concerned owners should discuss what types of drugs will be used on their dog with the veterinarian, especially if the dog has previously had a medication reaction.

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Causes of Anesthesia Allergies in Dogs

It’s not known what causes some animals to be allergic to certain drugs, however, other factors could contribute to anesthesia complications and make an allergic reaction more likely to be fatal.

  • Improper dosing
  • Improper monitoring
  • Prior medical conditions
  • Older dogs are more prone to complications
  • Some breed are predisposed the have problems under anesthesia
  • Brachycephalic – breeds with flattened faces, like Bulldogs, Pugs, Boxers, and Boston Terriers, generally have smaller airways; this can slightly increase the chance of airway obstruction and respiratory problems during anesthesia
  • Sighthounds – hunting breeds, like Greyhounds, metabolize drugs differently than other breeds and may take longer to recover from anesthesia; low body fat also increases the risk of hypothermia under anesthesia
  • Herding breeds – some Collie breeds, Australian Shepherds, and Shelties can have a gene mutation that increases the tendency for drugs to accumulate in the brain
  • Toy breeds – anesthesia risk generally increases in smaller animals, doses should be calculated carefully, since a small error will have a more drastic effect; hypothermia and hypoglycemia can also be a bigger problem with small animals
  • Giant breeds – many giant breeds are actually prone to anesthesia overdose since they metabolize and respond to drugs faster than other animals; anesthesia doses should be calculated based on lean body mass, rather than actual weight
  • Doberman Pinscher – a genetic abnormality called von Willebrand disease can mean Doberman Pinschers have problems with blood clotting as well as a tendency to dilated cardiomyopathy; it’s a good idea to ask the veterinarian to check for these conditions before your dog undergoes anesthesia
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Diagnosis of Anesthesia Allergies in Dogs

A pre-surgery exam with blood tests will help to identify conditions that might cause a reaction under anesthesia, like organ disease, diabetes, dehydration, or infectious diseases. It’s important to catch these problems since they could cause complications, however, there is no way for the veterinarian to diagnose an actual allergy without giving the drugs to your dog. The veterinarian and surgery assistant will check for symptoms during and after anesthesia administration and continue to monitor your dog throughout the surgery process. 

If your dog shows symptoms of an allergic reaction under anesthesia, he will then be diagnosed with an allergy. You should get a list of the drugs that were used from the veterinarian so that they can be avoided in the future. Any new veterinarian should be informed of previous allergy diagnoses, whether they were to anesthesia drugs, other medications, or a vaccine. Chronic conditions, like diabetes or heart problems should also be mentioned in case they are not caught in the pre-operation check-up. These conditions can increase the chances of an allergic reaction being fatal.

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Treatment of Anesthesia Allergies in Dogs

If your dog shows signs of an allergic reaction under anesthesia, the veterinarian will administer appropriate drugs intravenously. Benadryl or another antihistamine could be given for mild reactions. Corticosteroids can also help to reduce swelling and inflammation, and keep airways open. Epinephrine could be needed for severe anaphylactic reactions. Additional fluids, and emergency treatments to support heart function may be given in life-threatening situations.

Unlike human treatments, most pet surgeries don’t automatically have an anesthesiologist in the room to monitor the patient. For an extra charge, you can usually request this service from the veterinarian. This can help to catch problems due to an allergy or another complication before the situation escalates into an emergency. Other security measures include connecting an IV catheter during the surgery. This will help to replace lost fluids, and ensure that the veterinarian can administer appropriate drugs quickly and easily in the advent of an allergic reaction or another complication. If this is not a general part of your veterinarian’s practice, it can usually be requested, also at an extra cost.

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Recovery of Anesthesia Allergies in Dogs

The rate of allergic reaction to anesthesia drugs is low, but it does happen and in some cases it can be fatal. Taking proper precautions will reduce the risk of complications with anesthesia. All dogs should be properly fasted since anesthesia drugs can cause them to vomit whatever food is left in the stomach. Swallowing reflexes are less functional under anesthesia and aspiration can be a problem. Oxygen is typically administered through a tube in the windpipe to further reduce the risk of aspiration. Other measures you can take include ensuring your dog is in good health and not dehydrated before he goes in for surgery. Most procedures that require anesthesia are completed without incident and the veterinarian will not order anesthesia unless the benefits gained are worth the risk.

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Anesthesia Allergies Average Cost

From 465 quotes ranging from $452 - $1,030

Average Cost

$1,570

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Anesthesia Allergies Questions and Advice from Veterinary Professionals

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Bennie

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Yorkie mix

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7 Years

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0 found helpful

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0 found helpful

Has Symptoms

Lethargic, Somewhat

My Yorkie mix Bennie had surgery to remove an orange sized mass on his liver. The surgery was successful, I brought him home and returned him 10 days later to have the stitches removed. Because he had the surgery, I did not have him groomed or bathed until I was sure it wouldn't harm the stitches site. The vet did a thorough body exam and found a large "burn" on his upper right leg. I was horrified. Bennie had not shown any discomfort or limping because of it, and I hadn't seen it because his coat was very long at that point. I was asked if I knew what caused the burn - there is nothing in my home that would have caused this. It had already started healing - as the surgery had been 10 days prior, I am prone to think it was from the site of the anesthesia needle. Does that make sense to you?

March 31, 2018

Bennie's Owner

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0 Recommendations

The image in the link below is generally the area of intravenous injection in dogs, assuming induction of anaesthesia was intravenous as there are many different combinations and routes of administration. Some anaesthesia induction agents may cause some irritation if injected under the skin or come into contact with the skin (propofol for example). I cannot say what the cause is, but the import thing is that it is healing. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM https://i.ytimg.com/vi/0VQK7tqystg/maxresdefault.jpg

March 31, 2018

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Ruby

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miniature dachshund

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7 Years

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1 found helpful

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1 found helpful

Has Symptoms

Open Wound, Sagging Skin, Lump, Cry

My dog was taken in by my veterinarian a week ago for teeth cleaning and extraction. The day after the surgery we noticed a sagging part of her skin near her ribs, chest and stomach, that hurts her when we touch it. When we brought her back to the veterinarian they said the anesthesia must have not been put through the vein and to wait it out. We received a cover for her to wear so she doesn't touch it since she yelps every time she does, and a topical spray. Now we notice a infection/ scab and blood with an open wound on the sides of her chest which still hurts her very much, she does not walk as much or move around like before since it hurts her. The veterinarian is closed the next two days so we have to wait till Tuesday and we are worried about if this should be dealt with sooner. Thank you.

Feb. 18, 2018

Ruby's Owner


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1 Recommendations

Any open wound should be managed to prevent against any secondary infection; cleaning the wound with a dilute antiseptic and applying an antibiotic ointment like Neosporin may help in the short term but ideally you should visit an Emergency Veterinarian if there are signs of pain, discharge, fever or anything else concerning. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM

Feb. 18, 2018

Thank you for the very quick response. I was just shocked something like this happened after a tooth surgery since it is not related to the rest of her body, however now that hurts rather than the teeth. I wanted to make sure this was heard of by someone else since the first time my vet saw this he said he has never seen anything like it before. I will seek help as soon as I can. Thank you again

Feb. 18, 2018

Ruby's Owner

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Anesthesia Allergies Average Cost

From 465 quotes ranging from $452 - $1,030

Average Cost

$1,570

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