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Tendons are composed of strong collagen fibrils which, when grouped together, are referred to as collagen fiber. These dense collagenous fibers are enclosed in a thick connective tissue known as an epitenon.
Physiologically, the tendons in a dog’s body connect to muscle and to bone thereby allowing force to be generated, allowing muscle and bone to withstand tremendous pressure. However, once pressure and force exceed a certain limit then injury of the supporting tendon may occur.
A Tendon trauma may be defined as a laceration, inflammation or rupture of the tendon to the joint that results in severe pain and lameness, particularly in larger heavier dogs.
Because tendons connect muscle to bone then there will be a variety of tendon trauma that may occur in different parts of the body.Two types of tendon trauma seen in canines are:
Achilles tendon injuries
can further be classified as either traumatic (resulting from physical injuries) and atraumatic (chronic due to age). Damage to the Achilles tendon may be more common in larger breed dogs such as Doberman and Labradors.
refers to the inflammation of the biceps brachii tendon and muscle and most commonly affects larger mature dogs. Inflammation of the biceps brachii tendon is not the only form of tendon damage that can occur. Dogs may also experience rupture and hardening of this tendon.
Causes of tendon trauma may either be degenerative and chronic with aging animals or a result of extensive physical exertion. Some causes may include:
In order to diagnose tendon injuries your veterinarian may conduct a physical exam and ask for the history, duration and onset of the particular injury. They may carefully palpate the area to determine if swelling or malformation of muscle is prominent.
X-rays may determine if bone fragments have impacted the nearby muscle. Ultrasonography may be taken in order to determine the severity and/or possibility of ruptured tendons. However, studies suggest that arthroscopy may be used as well to determine joint function.
Surgical intervention is the method of choice by most veterinarians when treating severe tendon injuries, particularly ruptures. The aim of most tendon surgeries involve reattachment of tendon to bone and can be done through suturing and other forms of scaffolding. Suturing may involve either loop pulley or locking loop pattern. These methods of suturing have been suggested to improve mobility and quicker recovery of associated joints.
For mild cases involving straining or spraining of tendons, veterinarians may simply use casts or splints to stabilize an affected area.
If the tendon is facing severe inflammation (bicipital tenosynovitis) then your veterinarian may administer a long course of NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication) and opium in order to restore blood flow. Some possible NSAIDs used are deracoxib, carprofen, etodolac and ketoprofen.
Any form of tendon trauma may take up to 5 to 12 months for recovery depending on the severity of the case and the owner’s willingness to aid in recovery.
Postoperative care may involve the use of bio-scaffolding to promote stabilization of the joint. This may include the use of materials such as polypropylene mesh and bone plates; the use of these implants may, however, pose a risk due to the body’s’ immune system reacting badly to foreign objects. Thus, your veterinarian may require a follow up within 14 days to view the efficacy of the graft.
Your veterinarian will suggest restricting the dog from strenuous activity. Ideally, owners need to avoid allowing the dog to run and jump, to avoid excessive loading (for example, sled dogs) and any physical activity that may over strain the muscle and joints.
It is important to realize that complete restriction of slow movement and exercise will not aid in recovery as your dog may begin to unconsciously depend on the support of scaffolding. Thus, over time the veterinarian will slowly begin to decrease the amount of support given to the affected joint.
In order to rebuild muscle structure and enhance recovery, a slow progressive exercise regime should be considered 8 weeks after surgery. This may include a 6 week healing process involving:
Hydrotherapy - this may include swimming in a controlled environment with owner
In regards to dietary changes, your vet may recommend supplements rich in glucosamine, Methylsulfonylmethane and Hyaluronic acid. A few possible therapeutic supplements may include Tri-acta H.A, Glyco-Flex 2 and Traumeel.
It is estimated that approximately 70 to 94% of dogs may regain adequate mobility within 6 to 9 months depending on the efficacy of therapy.
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1 found helpful
my 4 yr old, 35 lb ball chasing dog ended up with an inch or so open gash on back of leg above paw about 4 wks ago. My vet was closing soon, so instead of anesthesia and stitches, she used staples. Vet wanted us to encourage using it, so at third bandage change I asked for one that left his foot open, thinking that would help. We woke up next day to his foot swelled to twice it's normal size. Got new bandage. 2 days later with bandage and staples out, he still carried foot and his foot now sits flat, with toes not stable. Vet gave another bandage as a splint with slow walking to encourage use. Which he did, but after 5 days his toes still are the same. He will forget about it, and use it, but he does carry it alot. Went to another vet for second opinion, and are going to try some rehab. We have done no imaging of any sort. Was suggested we try the rehab first. Vet said he doesn't feel any sign of breakage. Thinks the tendon or ligament may have been damaged in the injury, and Milo may have to live with this. I think this would be his achilles tendon that was damaged? Would xrays' give us any more info? Can this damage be fixed with any kind of surgery? Or time. I feel so bad that his beautiful foot now looks deformed. He's basically flat footed now. The pads are on two toes are rolled up so that instead of facing the ground, they face forward. Viewed from the front his 2 outside toes roll up and the 2 inside toe pads sit on the ground. I can send you a picture?
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