Blood Transfusions Reactions Average Cost

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What are Blood Transfusions Reactions?

When your dog has a serious illness a blood transfusion can save its life, but there are risks that come with this option. Blood transfusions can sometimes have serious side effects if your dog has a bad reaction to the blood sample being used. These can be caused by immunologic reactions, such as hemolytic reaction, febrile reaction, or urticarial reactions. Non-immune reactions are caused by giving the wrong blood type, contaminated blood, outdated blood, blood overload, citrate toxicity, or hyperammonemia. Immunologic reactions are unpredictable emergencies that you cannot prevent, but a non-immune reaction to blood is usually the error of the medical staff so it is important that you have your dog treated at a veterinarian you know and trust.

A blood transfusion reaction can be an emergent situation with many different causes. They can be immune or non-immune related, but all reactions have to be treated immediately by your veterinarian. A blood transfusion rarely happens outside of the veterinarian’s office or animal hospital for this reason.


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Symptoms of Blood Transfusions Reactions in Dogs

Each type of blood transfusion reaction has its own symptoms which may be the same or similar.

Immunologic Reactions


  • Fever
  • Trouble breathing
  • Pale gums
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting
  • Fast heartbeat
  • Seizure
  • Heart attack


  • Increasing body temperature
  • Vomiting
  • Shock
  • Weakness
  • Coughing
  • Collapse


  • Vomiting
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Edema
  • Itching
  • Hives
  • Rash

 Non-Immune Reactions

Sepsis from Contaminated Blood

  • Fever
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Hypotension
  • Dizziness
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Blood clots

 Sepsis from Wrong Blood Type

  • Rapidly increasing body temperature
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting

 Sepsis from Outdated Blood

  • Trouble bleeding
  • Fast heart rate
  • Inflammation
  • Low blood pressure
  • Fainting

 Volume of Blood Overload

  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Rapid breathing
  • Cough
  • Dizziness

 Hemolysis from Change in Temperature

  • Sudden high body temperature
  • Extreme low body temperature
  • Chills
  • Shaking
  • VomitingShock

Citrate Toxicity

  • Vomiting
  • Shaking
  • Tremor
  • Seizure
  • Heart attack


  • Sleepiness
  • Fainting
  • Chills
  • Seizure
  • Coma


  • Hemolytic reaction
  • Febrile reaction
  • Urticarial reactions
  • Toxicity from contaminated, outdated, or the wrong blood type
  • Blood volume overload
  • Citrate toxicity
  • Hemolysis from change in temperature
  • Hyperammonemia

Causes of Blood Transfusions Reactions in Dogs

  • Hemolytic reaction is caused by your dog’s antibodies destroying the red blood cells of the new blood
  • Febrile reaction is due to the antibodies destroying the leukocytes or platelets
  • Urticarial reactions come from the destruction of your dog’s mast cells, causing degranulation
  • Sepsis from contaminated blood is due to the donor plasma being contaminated by bacteria
  • Sepsis from the wrong blood type is caused by wrong cross matching or mislabeling plasma
  • Sepsis from outdated blood occurs when blood is stored too long causing biochemical changes
  • Blood volume overload reaction sometimes happens during transfusion if your dog is given a high volume of blood too rapidly
  • Citrate toxicity reaction may be from an unknown liver disease and cannot metabolize the citrate correctly
  • Hemolysis from change in temperature usually occurs if the blood is too cold or hot, causing the body to go into shock
  • Hyperammonemia reaction is due to too much ammonia in the donor blood, it can also be caused by an unknown liver disease

Diagnosis of Blood Transfusions Reactions in Dogs

  • Febrile reaction is diagnosed by checking your dog’s body temperature
  • Urticarial reactions are recognized by the physical symptoms of hives, rash and breathing trouble
  • Sepsis from contaminated blood can be verified with a blood pressure and body temperature check
  • Sepsis from the wrong blood type is verified by checking your dog’s blood pressure and body temperature
  • Sepsis from outdated blood is diagnosed by checking your dog’s blood chemical levels
  • Blood volume overload happens when the blood is pumped too quickly into your dog’s body; the veterinarian will verify this by your dog’s blood pressure and EKG
  • Citrate toxicity will be verified by your dog’s symptoms and blood pressure; the veterinarian may also check your dog’s blood chemistry level
  • Hemolysis from change in temperature will be obvious immediately with your dog’s obvious increase or decrease in body temperature
  • Hyperammonemia can be verified with a blood chemistry panel and signs of central nervous system imbalance such as fainting or seizure

Treatment of Blood Transfusions Reactions in Dogs

Hemolytic reaction

The veterinarian will immediately stop the transfusion and start oxygen therapy and a blood thinner. Corticosteroid medication will also be used to decrease any inflammation. Your veterinarian will monitor your dog’s urine output and blood pressure before trying to finish the transfusion if necessary.

Febrile reaction

Your dog’s transfusion will either be slowed down or discontinued while giving NSAIDS or antihistamine medication. The blood transfusion can continue when the crisis is over and your dog will be monitored overnight.

Urticarial reactions

The transfusion will have to be stopped and the veterinarian will administer antihistamine and corticosteroid treatment. Once the attack is over, the veterinarian will try to continue the blood transfusion if necessary, while monitoring your dog’s blood pressure.


Your veterinarian will stop the blood transfusion and give your dog antibiotics, and possibly corticosteroids while culturing the blood to find out the reason for the sepsis. If it is contaminated or outdated, the veterinarian will treat your dog for whatever microbe infiltrated the blood. If the problem was the wrong blood type, the veterinarian will start an IV fluid treatment and administer another blood transfusion after double-checking the dog’s blood type to the sample blood.

Blood volume overload

This is treated by stopping the transfusion and giving your dog Lasix to reduce fluid retention. The transfusion can be restarted after your dog has been stable for about an hour.

Citrate toxicity

Your vet will stop the blood transfusion and administer calcium gluconate. Your dog will need to be tested for liver disease and monitored for several hours. The transfusion will be continued if necessary.

Hemolysis from change in temperature

This condition requires no treatment as the temperature change is temporary. Your dog’s body will regulate the blood to the right temperature and the transfusion can continue as expected.


Your veterinarian will stop the blood transfusion and monitor the blood pressure, urine output, and body temperature of your dog until the crisis is over. The transfusion may begin again with a different blood sample.

Recovery of Blood Transfusions Reactions in Dogs

Since blood transfusions are usually done in your veterinarian’s office or an animal hospital, your dog has an excellent prognosis. The veterinarian will provide the correct treatment right away. Depending on the reason for the blood transfusion, your dog will be able to go home within a few hours. A follow-up visit is essential to be sure there are no lasting effects of the blood transfusion reaction.

Blood Transfusions Reactions Questions and Advice from Veterinary Professionals

Snauzer and poodle mix
14 Years
Serious condition
0 found helpful
Serious condition

Has Symptoms

Loss of Appetite

My smokey who is a snoodle had a blood transfusion the day before and yesterday because the doctor said he was anemic due to the hookworm and he started on medication for that and he has to have 3 days more ,his appetite came back on the first day of transfusion because we took him home and back the following for another transfusion, and today he is weak and no appetite to eat ,is this the side effects of blood transfusion

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8 Years
Serious condition
0 found helpful
Serious condition

Has Symptoms

Anemia, Weakness, loss of appitite

I recently lost my 8 year old miniature schnauzer. I took her to the ER two weeks ago and was told that she needed an immediate blood transfusion, her blood level was 7%. I got her the transfusion and she was still under veterinary care. I got a call telling me that she passed a week later. Any idea what could have gone wrong? The vet told me that she was found having trouble breathing and could not stand the morning of her passing.

Dr. Callum Turner, DVM
Dr. Callum Turner, DVM
3319 Recommendations
Without performing a necropsy and reviewing all of Janae’s medical records I cannot determine what the specific underlying cause for the anaemia was and whether the blood transfusion contributed to her passing or not. Normally a blood transfusion is given as supportive and symptomatic care in cases of blood loss or in cases of anaemia (low circulating number of red blood cells) among others; there is the possibility of a blood transfusion reaction, underlying disease damaging newly transfused red blood cells or another cause leading to complications. Unfortunately based on the information I cannot shed any light on this for you. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM

I forgot to mention that I was called after the transfusion and was told she was doing well and days later after another check was told that all of her organs were doing well, so after reading all of your responses I feel that my dog should have survived. Honestly, I think someone decided to keep her. It’s a long story about how my dog got in this doctors care but it was an emergency - I didn’t take my dog myself, I handed her over to someone I thought I could trust. I received no physical evidence of her passing, that’s also why I am concerned.

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Maltese Shih Tzu
4 Years
Serious condition
0 found helpful
Serious condition

Has Symptoms


My 4 yr old had a blood transfusion yesterday. Today he has an iv attached and a catheter attached. And a bag of sodium . The bag of urine is dark red. Is this bad?

Dr. Callum Turner, DVM
Dr. Callum Turner, DVM
3319 Recommendations
The dark/red urine is an indicator of haemoglobin which is released when red blood cells are damaged; this would be a strong indicator of red blood cell destruction caused by either an autoimmune disease, infection, parasites, splenic tumours, kidney failure or poisoning among other causes. Supportive care (possibly with another transfusion) and treatment of the underlying cause is required. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM

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10 Years
Fair condition
0 found helpful
Fair condition

Has Symptoms

haven’t noticed any symptoms

My pug had a blood transfusion a week ago and in the past couple days she has started to have some red sores pop up on her belly and under her fur. Is there anything I need to worry about with that occurring and do I need to take her to see the vet?

Dr. Callum Turner, DVM
Dr. Callum Turner, DVM
3319 Recommendations
Generally reactions to blood transfusions are more or less evident quite quickly, the spots may be an issue but it is dependent on the underlying cause for the reason for the blood transfusion. I would recommend returning to your Veterinarian to be on the safe side and a general check up as Cleo’s condition needs to be severe for a blood transfusion in the first place. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM

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Bichon poodle
5 Years
Serious condition
0 found helpful
Serious condition

Medication Used


My dog is currently being treated for ITP. The emergency hospital he’s at barely gives me any info and only cares about money. I’m just hoping the doctors are able to save him. He’s a bichon poodle and is about 5 years old. His symptoms seem to be showing improvement ( less bruises, no more bloody stool) and although he seems very sad and depressed he’s still happy to see me. He came to the ER after having bloody stool, bleeding gums and bruises on his body. When he arrived his tongue was grey and he was acting like he was dying. His platelets were at 26k. The next day they dropped to 20k and they did a chest and abdomen ultrasound and a blood transfusion. He was leaking a little bit of fluid from his abdomen, but after the transfusion although his symptoms seemingly improved his platelets were down to 16,000 this morning. They said it sometimes normal for platelets to drop and come back up because the meds are still taking effect. It’s been three days and I keep hearing the same answer, he has a 50-50 chance. Can you offer me more insight?

Dr. Michele King, DVM
Dr. Michele King, DVM
1610 Recommendations
Some diseases are sort of a 'wait and see' as far as response, sadly, and it can be hard to be patient. If Todd is on medications for the ITP, his body should start to respond and produce platelets. Some dogs do need additional medications other than Prednisone, but if he is having less bruising and no more bloody stool, those are good indicators. I hope that all goes well for him.

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