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Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped masses found throughout the body, working as filters to foreign materials. These lymph nodes are found in clusters, grouping together in areas such as the groin (inguinal lymph nodes), pelvis (iliac lymph nodes), under arm (axillary lymph nodes) and the neck (cervical lymph nodes).
Lymph node removal is termed lymphadenectomy and is defined as the surgical removal of the lymph glands. The lymph nodes are part of the lymphatic system responsible for defending the body against viruses and bacteria. The lymphatic system is also in charge of returning excess body fluids to the circulatory system, but is also largely responsible for the spread of cancerous cells. As the body has an average of 500 to 700 lymph nodes, cancer cells can break away from their primary site and use the fast chain of lymph system to spread to other regions of the body. It stands to reason that the primary reason for performing a lymphadenectomy is to examine the lymph for the presence of cancerous cells.
A lymphadenectomy can either be limited/modified or total/radical. A modified lymphadenectomy is the partial removal of the lymph node, whereas a radical lymphadenectomy is complete removal of said lymph node. A lymphadenectomy is performed by a licensed veterinarian or specialized veterinarian than works primarily with the lymphatic system of animals.
Prior to the canine’s surgical date, the veterinarian will perform a fine-needle aspirate biopsy to evaluate the fluids taken from the swollen lymph. A cytology of said fluids will reveal abnormalities in the cells and further diagnostic testing will diagnose the present form of cancer.
The week prior to the surgery date, the canine will be required to halt all blood thinners and pain medications. These drugs inhibit the blood’s ability to clot and place the dog at risk for internal bleeding. If a canine has been prescribed a long-term pain medication or blood thinner, the veterinarian will perform an anticoagulation test prior to surgery to ensure the active drug components have left the body completely.
The night before surgery, your dog will not be able to eat or drink anything after midnight. As various lymph nodes can be found in the abdominal region, the following is a general step-by-step guide of abdominal lymphadenectomy surgical procedure.
A lymphadenectomy is a highly effective form of treatment for managing and treating cancerous cells inside a lymph node.
Dogs that have undergone a lymphadenectomy will be released from the hospital the day of the surgery. Some canines appear drowsy and inactive, whereas other dogs return to normal behavior. In either case, the dog must be confined and restricted from physical activity to prevent sutures from coming loose. An Elizabethan collar may be sent home with the dog to prevent manipulation of the incision site. Pain medications, paired with a broad spectrum antibiotic will be administered as directed by the veterinarian.
The cost to have your dog’s lymph node removed depends greatly on the number of lymph nodes affected, the location of the lymph node in the abdomen and the stage of cancer the canine is diagnosed with. Major surgery completed to remove deep lymph nodes are usually priced at around $1,500, but can be more depending on the veterinarian and what was required during surgery. Keep in mind that the stated price is only a general estimate for surgery and does not include additional treatment of chemotherapy and/or radiation. Ask your veterinarian about an estimated cost for your dog’s specific surgical needs.
As with all major abdominal surgeries, complications may occur. Although rare, a dog that has undergone a lymphadenectomy procedure may develop surgery induced bleeding, infection, and organ or tissue injury. A condition called lymphocele can also occur, a condition in which lymphatic fluids collect and need to be removed.
Abdominal lymph node removal is a procedure commonly done to prevent the spread of cancer and is a method of prevention in itself. Cancer cannot be prevented, but keeping your dog on a balanced diet, following routine veterinary check-ups, and avoiding harmful elements (air pollutants, chemicals) may aid in preventing this disease. Surgically removing the lymph nodes will permanently prevent lymphoma in that localized portion on the body. However, due to the fact that lymph nodes are found all over a dog's body, the prevention of cancer in other lymph nodes is not obtainable.
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Hi, my 40lb beagle has two lumps near her neck and behind legs, armpits, etc. My vet told me that it may be lymphoma. After I heard that I reserached as much as I could and changed her diet to homemade food rather than kibble because I read carbs/sugar is what feeds cancer. I incorprated 1 pill of 1000mg fish oil daily to boost immune system and coconut oil, with chicken and veggies such as carrots and spinach. Is it possable that the lump could be something else considering the location of lumps? This morning my beagle went to remove her lymph nodes in her neck. If the vet removes all lymph nodes (legs, neck, armpit) will that reduce cancer? Lastly, how much fish oil would you recommend for a 40lb dog daily? Is raw meat better than cooked considering raw has bacteria? I fed my beagle raw yolk once as portein supplement but the next day her stool was black/tarry. I'm not sure if that was just a reaction from the yolk or something else. Thank you
April 5, 2018
Dr. Michele K. DVM
Removing her lymph nodes will not help if KC has lymphoma. The thing that that will do is provide a good sample for pathology. If she has lymphoma, there are chemotherapy options available that may help her, depending on the type of cancer. Changing her diet, unfortunately, won't be a curative solution. If the lymph nodes come back as cancerous, it may be a good idea to get a referral to an oncologist for further treatment. I hope that she is okay.
April 5, 2018
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I took my dog to the vet today to look at a mass on his paw and some lumps on his throat. The vet said his lymph nodes in his throat and hind legs were enlarged and hard. The vet aspirated both sites and looked at the cells under the microscope. The cells from his paw contained some bacterial cells and lipoma cells. The cells from his throat contained lymphocytes with two nuclei. The vet said this meant he had lymphoma. Is that definitely true, or could his culture mean something else, like an infection from whatever caused the mass on his paw (the vet thought it may have been a bite)? He is a 12 year old Golden Retriever who is otherwise very healthy. His last check up was in January, and his next one is in July. He received a full body senior wellness exam last check-up, and they found nothing wrong. We have noticed that he's been drinking a lot of water lately, and this was ruled out to be any kind of problem during his January vet visit but I wonder if that was a mistake. He was also diagnosed with hypothyroidism in January and was put on medicine, but he has been off of it for about a month now due to problems with the prescription.
July 26, 2017
There is more to examining the number of nuclei in a cell for diagnosing lymphoma or any other cancer, although it is one of the parameters; number of nuclei, size of nuclei to cytoplasm ratio, shape of cell, chromatin among other criteria. Conditions like lymphoma can appear rapidly between two visits to your Veterinarian so may not have been apparent in January. Infections, inflammation, allergies and cancer may all cause lymph node enlargement. It may be worth sending an image of the microscope slide to PetRays who have board certified Oncologists to examine the image and will provide a full report of their findings. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVMhttp://petrays.com/specialists/oncology/
July 26, 2017
We had to take our dog in for surgery to have two mammary masses. During surgery they said they removed a their mass that they "thought" was a mammary mass but later said was parts of her inguinial lymph node. Its been almost 3 weeks she now has another swollen breast by the incision of that 3rd mass, also in her lower abdominal area where her inguinial lymph nodes are, are swollen and she is leaking a clear but yellowish fluid that has an odor. Im very concerned as we were told this is normal and the leaking should stop but it's been 3 weeks, she's very swollen and tender in her lower area and the leaking fluid turns her entire belly red plus has a lot of leakage. Is this normal? Should I seek another vet? Im extremely worried.
Aug. 30, 2017
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