During the 19th century there were many breeds being developed to hunt rats, and for blood sports such as bull-baiting and dogfighting. It is thought that the Bull Terrier was the result of crossing the Old English Bulldog with the Old English Terrier. Both the English Bulldog and the Old English Terriers are now extinct. During this time, there were no breed standards. Selective breeding was more about the dog’s performance and not his appearance. The Bull Terrier mix was eventually divided into the descendants of the Bull Terrier and the Staffordshire Bull Terrier. During the 1850s and 1860s the cross breeding began to focus on the breed’s appearance. The Bull Terrier was developed into a white dog with an egg-shaped head. They were bred to be tough, athletic and a loyal companion. He was nicknamed “The White Cavalier”. The Bull Terrier Club of America was formed in 1897. The Bull Terrier has been seen in movies such as: The Great Gatsby, Oliver Twist, Patton, The Incredible Journey, Frankenweenie, and Toy Story. From 1987 to 1989, Budweiser beer commercials featured a female Bull Terrier named "Spuds MacKenzie". A Bull Terrier has even lived in the White House during President Teddy Roosevelt’s term. The Chow Chow is believed to be an ancient breed that originated in Siberia or Mongolia 8,300 years ago. They were used as temple guards in China, Mongolia and Tibet. The Chow Chow were even used as models for the stone lion statues in Buddhist temples. This dog was bred for guarding, hunting, herding and pulling. Unfortunately, the Chow Chow was also used for human consumption in China and their fur was used for clothing. Some historians believe that the Chow Chow were war dogs during the 13th century and accompanied the Mongolian armies as they invaded China and Europe. The Chow was first exhibited in the United States in 1890. It placed third in the Miscellaneous class at the Westminster Kennel Club dog show. The American Kennel Club officially recognized the Chow Chow breed in 1903. Sigmund Freud had a Chow Chow named Jo-Fi, which he would include in his therapy sessions. He believed that dogs could determine a person’s true character. So, Jo-fi would help “assess” his patients. Chows have been loving companions to Martha Stewart, President Calvin Coolidge, Elvis Presley and Janet Jackson.