120-170 lbs
English Mastiff, Old English Mastiff

The Mastiff is considered the largest of the dog breeds.  Though Wolfhounds and Great Danes can be taller, this mammoth canine is massively muscled, thick, and heavy boned.  They originate from the ancient Molosser line that made its way to the British Isles.  Over several centuries, this noble and loyal dog continued to thrive in England as a protector and later, was used for bull and bear baiting.  The 19th century saw to outlawing of such cruel practices, and a selective breeding program turned this once fearsome breed into a gentle giant.  Today, the largest of the breeds still thrives and continues as a loyal guardian of their people.

Date of Origin
Molosser-type Dogs

Mastiff Health

Sketch of Mastiff
Average Size
Male Mastiff size stats
Height: 30-36 inches Weight: 170-230 lbs
Female Mastiff size stats
Height: 28-36 inches Weight: 120-170 lbs
Major Concerns
  • Gastric Torsion
  • Hip Dysplasia
Minor Concerns
  • Entropion
  • Ectropion
  • Elbow Dysplasia
  • Progressive Retinal Atrophy
  • Retinal Dysplasia
  • Hypothyroidism
Occasional Tests
  • Eye
  • Hip
  • Elbow
  • Thyroid Tests
  • X-Rays
  • Eye Examination

Mastiff Breed History

This self-sacrificing canine is a giant among dogs.  As the largest of the dog breeds, this colossus is a descendant of the Molosser family and was most likely brought to the British Isles aboard Phoenician trading vessels sometime between 2000 and 1500 BC.  Over the centuries and isolated on an island, the progenitor of the modern-day Mastiff was raised and bred as a fearsome guardian for the tribes living in the Isles.  By the Roman invasion in 55 BC, these brave canines were used as war dogs in the resistance against Rome.  So impressed with the dog’s size and courage, Julius Caesar brought a pack back to Rome to fight lions and gladiators.  As the centuries continued, the Mastiff’s role remained as a protector and guardian, but human interest also turned this breed to bull and bear baiting as well as pit fighting.  This cruel blood sport was banned in England in 1835, though it continued underground for some time.  Modern-day canines are descendants of these pit dogs as well as of a great and noble stock known as the Lyme Hall Mastiffs.  Sir Peers Legh was badly wounded in the battle of Agincourt, which took place on October 23, 1415, in northern France.  While fallen, Legh’s companion defended him for several hours through the battle.  Though Legh later died, his dog returned home, with a little of puppies in tow, and became the foundation for the Lyme Hall kennel and future English Mastiffs.  The Lyme Hall dogs were bred and documented for hundreds of years; thus, gaining a prominent position in the modern-day breed. As a former dog of war and later a pit fighter and bull baiter, this colossal canine underwent a selective breeding program to subdue some of their more fearsome qualities.  By 1885, the now docile giant was still a powerful and loyal guardian and earned recognition by the American Kennel Club.

Mastiff Breed Appearance

The Mastiff has a very powerful and heavy body.  They are considered the largest of all dog breeds, not in height but weight.  The largest Mastiff was recorded at 8’3 feet long and weighing 343 pounds.  This breed has a powerful structure with a large head.  The eyes are dark and set far apart.  Ears are small in proportion to the head and V-shaped and set moderately apart. The top of the head is broad and flat between the ears and rounded at the forehead with distinctive wrinkles.  The muzzle of this dog is short and dark in color in comparison to the rest of the head.  The nose is broad and dark with well-defined flat nostrils.  The lips are very loose and hang down the jaw giving the dog a distinctly square-shaped head in profile.  The bite is scissor, but undershot jaws are also common.  Their chest is wide and convex with well-rounded ribs.  This breed’s shoulders are sloped and heavily muscled.  The forelegs are straight, strong, set wide apart and end in large, round feet.  The hind legs are broad and muscular and set wide apart.  Any angulation is moderate and matches the forelegs.  Their tail is set moderately high and wide at the root while tapering at the end. 

Appearance of Mastiff
Eye Color Possibilities
brown Mastiff eyes
Nose Color Possibilities
black Mastiff nose
Coat Color Possibilities
cream Mastiff coat
fawn Mastiff coat
brindle Mastiff coat
Coat Length
Short Medium Long
Coat Density
Sparse Normal Dense
Coat Texture
Mastiff straight coat texture
Straight Wiry Wavy Curly Corded

Mastiff Breed Maintenance

Although this giant is a short-haired breed, they still need weekly brushing with a rubber hound glove to remove dead and loose hair.  They do have two shedding seasons, and daily brushing will help remove the excess hair.  Despite a short coat, this canine can develop a “doggy” odor.  This is due to an increase in oil produced.  Frequent brushing is recommended to help distribute the oils, and you may need to bathe your Mastiff slightly more regularly than other dogs.  However, be careful with over bathing as this can strip the necessary oils from your pup and lead to dermatosis or other skin conditions.  You should consult with your veterinarian or grooming specialist on the frequency and best products to use.  When it comes to picking up after your huge dog with a pooper-scooper, everything is bigger.  This breed is also known to drool a lot and requires a lot of food.  On average, this breed requires 8 to 8 ½  cups of food, divided into two meals daily.  The amount you feed your companion will depend on their size, age, and metabolism.  However, be careful with excessive feeding to prevent weight gain. Additionally, this breed is prone to developing bloat, which can develop from excessive eating and drinking. Avoid feeding your dog large meals and divide food into smaller portions when possible.

Brushes for Mastiff
Pin Brush
Nail Clipper
Brushing Frequency
Mastiff requires weekly brushing
Daily Weekly Monthly

Mastiff Temperament

The Mastiff is a great, big, loyal lug of a dog.  While loyalty and guardianship are the cornerstone traits bred for centuries, recent breeding programs within the last 300 years have also added a gentle nature to this breed.  They are a wonderful family pet who is protective and affectionate towards their people as well as great with children.  However loving of children, it is wise to supervise children while playing due to this breed's sheer size. As affectionate as this breed is with the family, they are leery of strangers.  When it comes to living and socializing with other dogs and animals, this serious pup must be socialized early and often.  This breed may develop aggression towards other animals if not properly socialized and again, the size of this dog can be dangerous if they don't know how to interact with other animals. 

Mastiff Activity Requirements

For the sheer size of this breed, they need little exercise and are relatively sedentary indoors.  It is possible to keep them in an apartment or in an urban area provided you can give them a short walk daily or have a small yard for them to move around in.  The Mastiff developed in temperate climates, and despite their Mediterranean ancestry, this breed tolerates the cold far better than they do the heat. When it comes to training, they are not known for their high intelligence, and they can be more difficult to train.  Although cooperative, they will often do everything slow, including learning.  Their slow lumbering style means they need less activity than other breeds.  A light walk daily is enough to keep your furry friend in good shape.
Activity Level
Low Medium High
Rec. Walk Mileage Per Week
15 miles
Minutes of Activity Per Day
60 minutes

Mastiff Food Consumption

Cups Per Day
8.5 cups
Daily Cost
$6.00 - $6.50
Monthly Cost
$180.00 - $195.00

Mastiff Height & Weight

6 Months
Sketch of Mastiff at six months
Male Mastiff size stats at six months
Height: 27.5 inches Weight: 120.0 lbs
Female Mastiff size stats at six months
Height: 27.0 inches Weight: 90.0 lbs
12 Months
Sketch of Mastiff at 12 months
Male Mastiff size stats at 12 months
Height: 30.0 inches Weight: 160.0 lbs
Female Mastiff size stats at 12 months
Height: 29.0 inches Weight: 110.0 lbs
18 Months
Sketch of Mastiff at 18 months
Male Mastiff size stats at 18 months
Height: 33.0 inches Weight: 200.0 lbs
Female Mastiff size stats at 18 months
Height: 32.0 inches Weight: 145.0 lbs

Top Mastiff Breeders

Check out who made our list for the most reputable Mastiff breeders of 2021.
Top Mastiff breeder DreamAcres English Mastiffs
DreamAcres English Mastiffs
Sturgis, Kentucky
Top Mastiff breeder Hill Crest Bullmastiffs
Hill Crest Bullmastiffs
Asheville, North Carolina
Top Mastiff breeder Mosier's Gentle Giants
Mosier's Gentle Giants
Sargent, Nebraska
Top Mastiff breeder StoneBull Bullmastiffs
StoneBull Bullmastiffs
Swanzey, New Hampshire

Mastiff Owner Experiences

5 Years
3 People
Intercepted and pounced on a loose german shepard heading quickly towards a playground of kids Willie is by far the best dog we have had or been around People all make fast friends
3 years, 7 months ago
9 Years
The Mastiff I walked was very gentle and friendly, and not overly excited. She was sluggish in her walk, but very obedient to commands. They are generally friendly and like to meet other dogs and walkers, but like to take breaks during walks to regain energy. They tend to walk at a slower pace and prefer a low amount of activity.
3 years, 7 months ago
2 Years
playing with other dogs
My mastiff is a total lovebug but the laziest dog I have ever met. He will sleep in till 11am if you let him. He is very protective of us, but very playful at the dog park or out on a walk. He also loves children. He is so good with my nephews and knows to be gentle with them. He eats about 6 cups a day and drinks (and slobbers) a lot of water. He sleeps on our bed and will make any spot on the couch his own.
3 years, 7 months ago
8 Years
Eating Snacks
Catch treats
Mastiffs are gentle giants. I’ve never met one that was aggressive. They can sometimes have a big bark but usually they’re just excited. They love to mosey. They’re very strong. You sort of have to go with the flow when you’re walking them. They love to stop and sniff. Lots of peeing. They love to mark their neighborhood. Watch out for super wet kisses and slobber.
3 years, 7 months ago
8 Years
Watching wildlife
The Mastiff I’ve walked is a large and loving dog. Along with his giant size is a sweet and slow temperament, making these breeds seems like gentle giants if trained correctly. Many large breeds can be very strong and lead to difficult walks for smaller or inexperienced walkers, but the Mastiffs I’ve walked with are the exception to this rule. That being said, it’s important to keep a firm leash at all times just in case a trigger for the particular dog pops up – squirrels for instance! On my most recent walk, I was able to leash up the Mastiff easily. He was fully grown, and knew the routine so leashing and harnessing was done easily. This dog lived in a small walk up apartment, and did have some trouble navigating tight stairwells, so giving some space helped. His size also made the double door to the apartment tricky, but his calm demeanor helped. We stepped outside, and had an outstanding walk. This Mastiff knew his neighborhood more than I did, and was happy to lead me on towards the large parks he liked. His owner commented that he enjoyed off-leash activities, but to be safe we didn’t risk it. He kept the same pace I walked, be it a quick run across the street or a slow crawl around the patches of ice. He had no particular interest in where we went, despite loving the park, and was willing to go along for an adventure. We had long walk (sixty minutes!) so we did a long loop around the Charles River. Starting on the Boston side and looping around the Cambridge, we kept a slow and steady pace, and he trudged along behind me slowly. A nice point about this large breed is the feeling of safety I had. I am a tall man, but still know to keep alert in the city streets. With this giant dog, I saw people going out of their way to avoid me. If only they realized how sweet this boy was! Occasionally he would stop for a minute to get his bearings, but just a little encouraging was enough to get him moving. A low energy and gentle giant, walking an old Mastiff is one of the most ideal dog walks I can think of when it comes to working with Wag. I’ve since decided to accept any walk with a loving Mastiff like this one!
3 years, 7 months ago
6 Months
ug-of-war, he loved playing fetch, and he loves p
people petts
The Masstif I took care of was a mastiff/great Dane mix! He was only six months but definitely full of energy and had a baby mentality, even though he looked like a full-grown dog. He was a very smart dog even though he was only six months old. I could tell that he knew his parents were gone when I was dog sitting him and he knew he could get away with not behaving perfectly while I was taking care of him. He was really well behaved most of the time except for the first couple days when he had separation anxiety from the owners. After the few days were up and he knew he could trust me, then he started to become very friendly and wanted to play with me, sleep in the bed with me, and snuggle with me. I walked him 2 to 3 times every day, he had so much energy! I came over to the house to walk him every day and he was jump up on me and he was much taller than I was when he would jump :) I could tell he didn't fully know his size, however, his mom told me that he never jumps up on people so I knew he was doing that because the owners were gone. Every time we went to the dog park we would see other dogs and owners there that he knew. The dog I took care of, his name was Apollo. When Apollo and I would go to the park, he would greet all the people he knew and would be very friendly to every dog he met. It was so sweet because he knew he was big enough that he couldn't play with the little dogs, so he would just sniff them and they would bark at him and he would just stare at them. It was really funny! I walked him enough during the day that I think he slept really well through the day and through the night. When it came to food I fed him 4 cups of dry dog kibble for large breeds and added in one whole can of whole dog food. He definitely chompped it down down. I took Apollo to the coffee shop twice and even being somewhere in a element he's never been he was super friendly to all the people and all the other dogs. I would highly recommend this dog, he was the best dog I've ever come across in my life!
3 years, 7 months ago
2 Years
4 People
House & Yard
My mother bought Simba when he was just a puppy, we were late with training but we managed to get most of it to perfection lol now the only issue we currently are having is him around other dogs, walking him out in public around other people and occasionally running after bikers lol Other then that he is a LOVELY dog. I have had a fear of dogs since the age of 12, but when we got Simba I kinda grew out of the fear. He is super affectionate, still acts like a puppy, and enjoys standing by my side where ever I go! I love my purebred English Mastiff!
2 years, 2 months ago
Book me a walkiee?
Sketch of smiling australian shepherd