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What are Kidney Stones?

Kidney stones don't typically present symptoms until they grow large, irritating the kidney ducts and potentially causing a serious infection or obstruction. Male cats and domestic Shorthairs are more likely to develop kidney stones than females and other breeds of cats.

The kidneys are responsible for filtering the blood, removing wastes such as mineral salts, urea, and toxins, and excreting these filtered wastes with water in the form of urine. Some of these wastes that are normally excreted by the kidneys aren't completely soluble and remain in the kidneys, forming crystals or renal calculi. Over time, these crystals can form stones, known as nephroliths, and cause a condition known as nephrolithiasis.

Kidney Stones Average Cost

From 369 quotes ranging from $200 - $5,000

Average Cost

$1,000

Symptoms of Kidney Stones in Cats

Small kidney stones often don't present symptoms and only become detected during a diagnostic test for another medical issue. Once kidney stones grow, however, they may cause the following symptoms:

  • Vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Bloody urine
  • Painful urination that is difficult to pass
  • Abdominal pain
  • Frequent urinary tract infection
  • Frequent urination that only produces a small amount of urine
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Causes of Kidney Stones in Cats

There are approximately ten different types of minerals that can form stones. Each type of kidney stone can be attributed to different causes. Some of these causes include:

  • Underlying kidney infection
  • Underlying urinary tract or bladder infection
  • Increased calcium levels in blood and urine
  • Supplements or diets that produce urine with a high alkaline pH
  • Genetic defects
  • Dehydration
  • Urinary retention
  • Certain medications
  • Certain concurrent illnesses or conditions
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Diagnosis of Kidney Stones in Cats

The veterinarian will need to know the cat's complete health history, which will include a list of symptoms, any recent illnesses or urinary tract infections, and any recent changes to the cat's diet. The veterinarian will physically examine the cat and draw several labs, which will include a complete blood count, a biochemical profile, a urinalysis, and a bacterial urine culture. These tests can indicate any other organ systems that are being affected, other concurring illnesses or conditions, the presence of a urinary tract infection, and the type of bacteria that is present in the urine.

X-rays and ultrasounds will also be done. These tests can show the presence of stones in the kidneys. In order to correctly identify the stones, a procedure called extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) may be performed. During this noninvasive procedure, shock waves will be used to break up the stones, allowing pieces to be removed from the urinary tract and identified. Identifying the minerals in the stones can help determine the best treatment for the cat.

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Treatment of Kidney Stones in Cats

Medication

If the kidney stones aren't obstructing the flow of urine, the cat may be prescribed medication in order to dissolve the stones, allowing them to pass from the cat via the urine. The urine culture will identify any bacteria present in the urine and an appropriate antibiotic will be determined and prescribed in order to treat cats with urinary tract infections. Medication for pain will also be given to the cat in order to reduce their pain levels while treatment for the kidney stones occurs.

Fluid Therapy

Cats who are dehydrated will need to be admitted to the hospital in order to receive fluid intravenously. The veterinarian will monitor the kidneys and heart during fluid therapy to ensure the fluids are being properly received by the body.

ESWL

Stones that are obstructing the flow of urine will need to be removed promptly in order to prevent kidney failure from occurring. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is typically the first option used by veterinarians for the removal of kidney stones due to its noninvasive nature.

Surgery

If the kidney stones are posing a medical emergency and ESWL isn't effective, surgery may be needed. During surgery, the veterinarian will make a small incision into the kidneys with the guidance of an ultrasound in order to remove the stones that are obstructing the flow of urine. The incision will be closed with sutures and the cat will remain in the hospital where it will be monitored. Surgery poses the risk of infection and of causing kidney damage, so it is only used when other treatment options aren't working.

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Recovery of Kidney Stones in Cats

Kidney stones tend to recur, so routine monitoring via ultrasounds will be necessary. If the cat received surgery, a follow-up appointment will be necessary in order for the veterinarian to check the incision site for infection. The veterinarian may recommend dietary changes, such as feeding the cat a diet of 50 percent wet food. These dietary changes can help reduce the cat's risk of developing kidney stones. Ensuring the cat always has a fresh supply of water can reduce the risk of dehydration and stones forming again.

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Kidney Stones Average Cost

From 369 quotes ranging from $200 - $5,000

Average Cost

$1,000

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Kidney Stones Questions and Advice from Veterinary Professionals

Need pet health advice? Ask a vet

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Ask a Vet

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Tabby

dog-age-icon

Ten Years

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Unknown severity

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3 found helpful

pill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filled

Unknown severity

Has Symptoms

Keeps Attempts To Urinate Only Dribble Comes Out

Is this kidney stones and how can I help him

July 29, 2020

Owner

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Dr. Sara O. DVM

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3 Recommendations

Hello, Cats rarely get kidney stones but they do get crystals in their bladder. If your cat cannot urinate or is just urinating a small amount these crystals can cause a blockage. It would be best for your vet to look at your cat and see if he has a bladder infection or a blockage. A blockage can become a medical emergency if not corrected. Good Luck. I hope your cat gets to feeling better soon.

July 29, 2020

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Morkie

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Bobtail

dog-age-icon

6 Years

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Fair severity

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1 found helpful

pill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filled

Fair severity

Has Symptoms

Frequent Urination
Freq

A week ago I took my female cat urine to the vet. She had blood in her urine, frequency of urination and litter box avoidance. They put her on medication. After a week the same symptoms occurred. I took her in yesterday, they took xrays and found a small kidney stone. They want to do surgery. Is there some other alternative? Can she possible pass it? Will she be suspectible to having more? Right now she is on a antibiotic and a small pain pill. They want to do surgery. Is there another alternative to try to dissolve this? Is the average cost 750.

Sept. 23, 2018

Morkie's Owner

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panjang

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British short hair

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3 Years

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Mild severity

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0 found helpful

pill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filled

Mild severity

Has Symptoms

Dripping Urine

my cat has been dripping urine, which is unusual for him. I took him to the vet, he has stones. last month done surgery. but just now, he cannot urine as usual,still like dripping urine and seen blood in urine. is it may risk he can get stone again? or can u suggest me any treatment for my cat? because he dont want drink and eat

Aug. 22, 2018

panjang's Owner

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0 Recommendations

It is possible that Pangjang has a recurrence of urinary stones or that he has a secondary issue causing inflammation, you should return to your Veterinarian for a follow up examination to check for stones, infections among other issues affecting the urinary tract. You should ensure that Pangjang is fed a suitable diet to prevent urinary stones and any other issue is also managed. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM

Aug. 22, 2018

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Whitney

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Tuxedo

dog-age-icon

8 Years

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Moderate severity

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0 found helpful

pill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filled

Moderate severity

Has Symptoms

Vomiting
Kidney Stones

My cat has 2 large stones she is on px food (kibble) she was responding well then vomited tonight. Before we switched food she was urinating outside the box with blood in urine. Does the vomiting show signs of flare up or something more serious is happening?

Aug. 12, 2018

Whitney's Owner

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Dr. Michele K. DVM

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0 Recommendations

I'm not sure if there is more to the problem for Whitney without knowing more information, unfortunately. If she has been on the prescription food for some time and has been tolerating it, and just vomited once, you may be fine to monitor her, as cats do sometimes vomit. If the food is new, she may not be tolerating it well. If she is lethargic or not wanting to eat, or is continuing to have problems with her urine, it would be a good idea to have a recheck for her to make sure that she is continuing to do well.

Aug. 12, 2018

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Proton

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Unknown

dog-age-icon

3 Years

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Fair severity

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0 found helpful

pill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filled

Fair severity

Has Symptoms

Vomiting
Foaming At The Mouth

My male cat has been stopped up with stones 2 times now and almost died. Now my girl cat is throwing up just like he was. Does it mean she has stones too? They both are on a Rx food that is supposed to prevent them. Has thrown up for 2 days foamy throwup

July 12, 2018

Proton's Owner


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Dr. Michele K. DVM

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0 Recommendations

There are many causes for cats to vomit, and urinary problems are just one of them. It isn't likely that Proton has urinary stones that are causing her to vomit, but it is possible. Since I can't see her, and she is vomiting that many times, it would be a good idea to have her seen by your veterinarian to see what might be going on with her and get treatment for her.

July 12, 2018

Only vomiting not foaming at the mouth

July 12, 2018

Proton's Owner

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Felix

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American Short Hair

dog-age-icon

3 Years

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Serious severity

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0 found helpful

pill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filled

Serious severity

Has Symptoms

Bleeding
Urinating Outside Litterbox
Urinating In House
Urination Pain

My cat has had difficulty peeing, and recently he's been peeing blood. We can't go to a vet because of how expensive it is, and we can barely afford rent. I don't know what to do. I can't tell if he's in pain or what's going on with him. I'm scared out of my mind.

Kidney Stones Average Cost

From 369 quotes ranging from $200 - $5,000

Average Cost

$1,000

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