What is Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease?
Many cases of gastroesophageal reflux disease go unnoticed or misdiagnosed because the symptoms resemble many others such as vomiting, gastritis, and regurgitation. Many people (including some veterinary medical care providers) confuse gastroesophageal reflux disease with heartburn although they are two different things.
In fact, heartburn is actually a symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease. It is the uncomfortable burning in the stomach, chest, and chest area. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a very common disorder in dogs, especially Shar-Peis, and can be caused by many things such as hiatal hernias, hereditary conditions, and certain medications. The most common cause is regurgitation, which often gets mistaken as vomiting.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease, or acid reflux, is a condition that causes digestive enzymes and acids to build up in the esophagus from the stomach. This is not only a painful disorder, but may also be dangerous from the erosion of the esophageal tissues that may cause ulcers. It creates a burning sensation in the mouth and throat similar to gastroesophageal reflux disease in humans that can also make it difficult to swallow food and water.
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Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Dogs
Some of the most common signs of gastroesophageal reflux disease in dogs are:
- Drooling more than usual
- Regurgitation or vomiting
- Burping or gurgling after eating
- Bad smelling breath
- Coughing up small amounts of vomit
- Pain while eating and drinking (whining during meal time)
- Taking breaks during meals
- Appetite and weight loss
- Laryngitis (change in bark)
There are two types of gastroesophageal reflux disease, which include:
- Genetic gastroesophageal reflux disease is most often seen in the Shar-Pei breed of dogs, but can affect any breed of any sex
- Acquired gastroesophageal reflux disease can be caused by many different situations, some of which are excess calcium in the blood, side effects from certain medications, and carrying excess weight
Causes of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Dogs
There are many causes of gastroesophageal reflux disease, although it is still not completely understood. Some of these include:
- Too much acid produced by the stomach
- Hiatal hernia
- Eating spicy or fatty foods or other trigger foods such as vinegar, pepper, cauliflower, cabbage, and brussels sprouts.
- Being overweight
- Too much calcium in the blood
- Certain medications such as doxycycline or tetracycline
- Inability to wash down a pill, which leads to the pill dissolving in the esophagus, causing erosion
- Licking toxic chemicals from fur or other surfaces
- Anesthesia complication
Diagnosis of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Dogs
If your dog has been having trouble eating, frequently regurgitates his food, or is showing other abnormal eating habits, you should take him to see your veterinary care provider as soon as you can. The veterinarian will need to know your dog’s medical history and recent illnesses or injuries. Also, be sure to tell the veterinarian if you have given your dog any kind of medication, whether prescribed or over the counter.
A complete and thorough physical assessment will be done to check your dog’s overall health. This includes palpation, auscultation, vital signs, and coat condition as well. Laboratory tests will also be done such as blood tests, fecal examination, and urinalysis.
Diagnostic tests are also done, which includes the most important test, endoscopic examination. This procedure is done while your dog is sedated to prevent too much stress. The veterinarian will use a tool called an endoscope, which is a long flexible tube with a light on the end, placing it into your dog’s mouth and down his throat to see the throat and esophagus. The veterinarian will be able to see if there are any lesions, redness, or scarring of the esophagus from acid buildup.
In addition, tissue samples will be taken during the procedure to be examined for plasmacytic or lymphocytic enteritis and Helicobacter colonization. Another diagnostic test that is commonly used is an esophagography, which is an x-ray of the esophageal area using a dose of radiopaque contrast beforehand. Other radiographs (x-rays), ultrasound, CT scans, and an MRI may also be needed for a closer examination.
Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Dogs
Treating gastroesophageal reflux disease includes a change in diet, possibly medications, and in extreme cases, surgical procedures.
You should be feeding your dog several small meals a day rather than one or two larger meals. Food that is easy to digest such as boiled chicken and broccoli.
There are several medications your veterinarian may prescribe including histamine-2-antagonists such as famotidine, ranitidine, or cimetidine or proton pump inhibitors such as omeprazole or Prilosec. If there is a Helicobacter infiltration, an antimicrobial will be given as well.
In very severe cases, which are rare, a surgical procedure is done endoscopically to correct the hernia or other conditions that may be causing the gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Recovery of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Dogs
By treating the damage with certain medications to heal the damage to the esophagus, your dog can be back to normal within 24 to 36 hours. Continue to only feed several small meals per day of low fat and protein daily with plenty of fresh water. Also, be sure to follow up with the veterinarian as directed.
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Questions and Advice from Veterinary Professionals
Our German Shorthaired Pointer has vomited yellow foam since he was a puppy. Last Oct., he threw up and then had a seizure (at lunch time). We went 6 months and it happened again at 4:30 am, one month later it happened at 5:00pm, then a month later, again at 6:45am. I've wondered if he has GERD b/c he's sometimes howl out once in the middle of the night for no obvious reason and he licks a lot. He'll leave big wet spots on the furniture, and he drinks a lot of water. He also is a bit thin according to one vet, although another said he's fine. If he does have GERD, could that somehow cause the seizures? Thank you!
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Hi there! I have a 9-year-old standard size, moderately overweight Chihuahua who's experienced increasing episodes of regurgitation & attempting to snort it back, resulting in it getting into his trachea and causing him to make these loud "honking"-like noises. During really bad episodes, he has no interest in eating although,if it occurs for more than 24 hours, he sometimes gets so hungry that he'll eat anyway. These episodes occur when he eats fattier types of meat than chicken (I've begun removing the chicken skin, which seems to help), but they also occur when he appears to be reacting to environmental allergens, such as dust and pollen; in fact, I've frequently wondered if allergic sinusitis causing postnasal drip into his throat and stomach could be causing these regurgitation episodes, rather than GERD? In any case, it seems to be getting worse (more frequent, more severe, and longer in duration when the episodes occur), although he does not appear to be in any distress from pain. He does frequently lick his front legs a lot. I know proper diagnosis is very important given varying treatment modalities for different diseases, however, I live on a modest fixed income, so I most unfortunately don't have a lot to spend on vet bills. If dietary changes are the main treatment, what would be the best food for him?
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my 10 week old puppy has been regurgitating white foam and the food like it was when he ate it sometimes it can happen straight away or can take say hour then he does it he just scoffs his food as he is starving he is now lossing weight and is not his usual self we have had xrays to determine if it was the mega esophagous but came back clear im thinking maybe he has this gastroesophageal reflux disease?
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