Thousands of pooches still spend most of their time in backyards, even in the depths of winter when we wouldn't even think about going outside without several layers of extra clothing.
So, can dogs live in cold weather and how much cold weather is too much for a dog to take? Let's take a closer look.
Signs Your Dog is Cold
The most obvious sign your dog is feeling the cold is if they're shivering, trembling, or shaking. This is the body's way of trying to generate heat, and a shivering dog is one that needs to be moved somewhere warm and dry as quickly as possible.
Lethargy, general weakness, or a dog that's sleeping more than usual are also warning signs that shouldn't be ignored. The latter could be an indication of hypothermia, which requires urgent veterinary attention, while the pain of arthritis can also be more pronounced in cold weather and dogs may be slow or reluctant to get moving.
Other signs your dog is cold include whining or whimpering, curling up into a ball, and hiding or trying to seek out shelter wherever possible.
One simple way to check your dog's temperature is to feel their ears. If they're cold, especially around the edges, this shows that your dog's body is trying to keep warm. When this is the case, get them inside as soon as possible so they can get back to a normal temperature.
- Low tail carriage
- Dropped Ears
- Trouble Breathing
- Curling Up
- Sleeping More than Usual
- Cold Ears
- Seeking Shelter
History of Dogs and Cold Weather
For much of our history together, dogs have also been largely viewed as working animals such as hunters or guardians. As a result, they were kept with other animals in barns and sheds, or simply outside — but rarely did they spend the night in the family home.
It was only really in the second half of the 20th century that pet dogs started to make the move out of urban and suburban backyards and into our homes. As our knowledge of canine health and wellbeing has developed, it's become obvious that asking our dogs to sleep out in the cold can sometimes be cruel and also dangerous.
Dogs also play more important roles in our lives than ever before — rather than occasional playthings to be left in the backyard and forgotten about, they're our constant companions and an integral part of the family. With this in mind, it's no surprise that dogs are increasingly being welcomed inside and out of the cold.
The Science of Dogs Feeling the Cold
The most obvious of those variables is your dog's coat. Canines with thick, double layered coats are obviously going to be much better prepared for a romp in the snow than a short-haired dog with a thin covering of fur.
Next on the list is size, as big dogs generally have less surface area relative to their volume than small dogs, while body fat can also help keep the winter chill at bay.
Your dog's overall age and health status can also play a part, as puppies, older dogs, and sick dogs simply aren't as efficient at regulating their own body temperatures. Other health issues can have an influence as well, for example, older dogs struggling more with aching arthritic joints in winter.
Finally, there's the all-important variable of acclimation to consider. If your dog is used to winter walks in Minnesota, for example, they'll be much more acclimated to the cold than a pooch that as only ever experienced California winters.
Thanks to researchers at Tokyo's Yamazaki Gakuen University, we also know that dogs have specialized circulation systems in their paws that essentially warm up their blood. This allows them to walk on snow and ice for long periods without appearing to show any discomfort.
Caring For Your Dog in Winter
Young pups and older dogs are also more susceptible to the cold, and so may need extra-special care and attention when the mercury drops. And if the temperature ever reaches zero, no dog should ever be left outside.
The final piece of advice is to remember a few, simple winter-care tips. Know the warning signs that can indicate whether your pooch is struggling with the cold, keep your pet away from antifreeze, and make sure your dog is in a healthy weight range all year long.
Winter Dog-Care Safety Tips
Recognize the warning signs. Monitor your dog's body language and behavior for any signs they are struggling with the cold. If you notice any telltale symptoms, get your dog inside where they can warm up as soon as possible.
Give them somewhere warm to sleep. Shelter is crucial for dogs in winter, but so too is somewhere safe and warm to sleep. Make sure your dog's bedding is sufficient to keep them cozy all night long, and that there are no drafts affecting their sleeping area.
Know how much is too much. Over time, you'll develop a good idea of how much cold weather your dog can tolerate. Make sure you always stay within these limits and never force your dog to go beyond their comfort zone.
Get a doggy jacket. If it's cold for you and you need extra layers, your indoor dog will likely be feeling the chill as well. Consider investing in a jacket or coat to help your dog stay warm.