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Thoracic duct ligation is a surgical procedure used to treat chylothorax in dogs. During normal digestion, fat molecules from food pass through small lymph vessels known as lacteals before being transported into the cisterna chyli, the largest lymph vessel in the abdomen. These fat molecules then join the lymph fluid already present in the cisterna chyli. It is transported through the thoracic duct in the chest before entering the vena cava.
In dogs diagnosed with chylothorax, the thoracic duct leaks chyle into the chest cavity. As more chyle accumulates in the chest cavity, the lungs cannot fill with air, which causes difficulty breathing. Because chyle also contains important substances like protein, vitamins, and white blood cells, chylothorax may weaken the dog’s immune system.
Thoracic duct ligation involves redirecting the flow of the lymph fluid into the abdominal veins rather than the thoracic duct. This usually resolves chylothorax. However, if the chylothorax is secondary to another condition, more treatment may be needed to fully resolve the condition. Additionally, more conservative methods may be recommended prior to surgery, especially if the condition can be managed through dietary changes or medication.
There are a few different approaches to this surgery, which will vary based on the underlying cause and the expertise and preferences of the surgeon. It may be performed as an open surgery or as a minimally invasive procedure which involves the use of a thoracic video camera. The procedure steps for both approaches are outlined below.
Minimally Invasive Approach
Thoracic duct ligation is usually effective in treating idiopathic chylothorax. The success rate of surgery ranges from 50% to 93%. It is the most common surgical approach to treating chylothorax. The minimally invasive approach reduces healing times and postoperative complication risk. It should also be noted that the prognosis significantly improves if additional procedures are performed. These are pericardiectomy and cisterna chyli ablation. The former involves removing all or part of the pericardium, and the latter is the removal of the cisterna chyli. These are typically performed in conjunction with thoracic duct ligation.
During hospitalization, veterinary staff will monitor the dog for breathing problems. Oxygenation may be required for some dogs experiencing severe difficulty breathing. The chest tube is removed after effusion has reduced. Upon discharge, pain medication and antibiotics are prescribed. Dogs should rest, not engaging in activity or exercise, for two weeks, or according to surgeon instructions. Leash walks for the purpose of elimination are usually allowed. Dogs may need to wear a bandage or Elizabethan collar to avoid aggravating the suture site. Sutures will be removed within two weeks, and the veterinarian will perform a follow-up exam to assess healing. If any complications arise, or if any discharge, swelling, or bleeding occurs near the surgery site, owners should consult their veterinarian immediately.
The cost of thoracic duct ligation in dogs may vary based on the approach to surgery, concurrent surgical procedures, standards of living, and laboratory costs. The price of thoracic duct ligation typically ranges from $1,000 to $3,000.
Several complications may occur with thoracic duct ligation. These may include:
Up to 40% of dogs that undergo this surgery will experience persistent effusion. This effusion may or may not be chylous, and can resolve on its own or with the help of medication and additional treatment. The surgeon will discuss all possible complications with the owner prior to surgery.
It is difficult to prevent chylothorax in most dogs, particularly if the cause is unknown. Prevention options will vary based on the underlying condition.
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Hello, my dog is suffering from pleural effusion specifically chylothorax. This started in November of this year, he got tapped then the vet recommended low fat prescription diet food and Rutin 3 times a day. He was doing great until recently where he had fluid tapped a week ago and now it looks like he is having breathing complications again. My vets are doing great but I think they are not very confident on there knowledge of this disorder and being very vague with me on what could be the cause and what other treatments can be used. I am obviously new to this and have done some research but even so, I feel lost. I really want to help my dog and not have him constantly going under. This is scaring me and I would like to ask around for opinions of other vets. Do you think surgery would be beneficial for my dog? Is it too new to tell? What are other things I should be considering? I also am considering medical insurance since this will get costly. A lot of pet insurance don’t cover “pre-existing conditions”. I was wondering if what my dog has is pre-existing or considered congenital as I read shiba’s are predisposed to this condition. Please email me at email@example.com. Thank you, Kaitlynn Holmes
April 21, 2018
Dr. Michele K. DVM
I'm sorry that this is happening to Meeko. Chylothorax can be a difficult condition to manage, and he may need to see a specialist to have further diagnostics and try to figure out the cause of the problem so that you can resolve it. Unfortunately, this would be a pre-existing condition, as he is being treated for it. I hope that you are able to get to the bottom of this problem and resolve it.
April 21, 2018
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