What is Vaginal Prolapse Reduction and Resection?

Vaginal prolapse requiring surgical reduction and resection is relatively rare in dogs. Minor vaginal prolapse can occur as part of a heat cycle in young dogs and in these cases can usually be treated with anti-hemorrhoidal creams to reduce swelling, a urinary catheter if urination is difficult, and hormone treatments. A veterinarian may also manipulate the prolapsed vaginal tissue back into place and suture it there temporarily until it maintains a normal position. This type of prolapse is however, likely to recur, especially during subsequent heat cycles. If the condition becomes chronic, damage to vaginal tissue and necrosis may occur, requiring surgical resection of tissues to return remaining viable vaginal tissue to the vaginal cavity. In addition, incidence such as parturition or injury sustained during breeding may cause severe acute prolapse, or vaginal prolapse may be accompanied by prolapse of other tissues, or infection, which necessitates surgical intervention to excise damaged, or displaced tissue prior to the return of vaginal tissue to the vaginal cavity. If vaginal prolapse reduction or resection is required in your dog, it will be performed under general anaesthetic. Spaying is usually recommended for a dog that is experiencing chronic prolapse or has experienced severe prolapse to help prevent recurrence in the future. 

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Vaginal Prolapse Reduction and Resection Procedure in Dogs

Prior to administration of anaesthetic, your dog will need to fast from food for 12 hours. Your dog will be sedated, administered intravenous anesthesia and intubated to sustain anesthesia by gas for the procedure. Additional local anesthetic may be administered epidurally. A catheter will be placed to aid with voiding of the bladder and antibiotics initiated prophylactically to prevent infection from occurring.The vaginal area is prepared for surgery by removing excess hair and cleaning antiseptically. A purse string suture may be placed at the anus to prevent contamination of the surgical area during the procedure. The tail will be moved aside and secured. Towel clamps will be used to retract vulvar tissue and expose prolapsed vaginal tissues. The urethra is located and protected during the procedure. Stay sutures will be placed in vagina tissue and tourniquate sutres placed around the prolapsed mass to secure tissue to be excised and reduce blood flow. Prolapsed vaginal mucosal tissue may be excised with electrocautery or incised traditionally, and tissues sutured at the resection site. Tourniquets and stay sutures are removed and remaining vaginal tissue is manipulated back into place and sutured as required to hold tissue in place. The urinary catheter is removed either immediately after or shortly after surgery. Spay may be performed in conjunction with this procedure to prevent future recurrence of prolapse. The dog is supervised as they recover from anesthesia.

Efficacy of Vaginal Prolapse Reduction and Resection in Dogs

In most cases when surgical resection and resection accompanied by spay is performed, recurrence of prolapse does not occur. Urinary tract functioning of the dog is not usually affected and recovery is generally good with few complications.

Vaginal Prolapse Reduction and Resection Recovery in Dogs

Post-surgery your dog will be given painkillers for 24 to 48 hours, and prophylactic antibiotics for several days to ensure infection is prevented. The vulva area should be kept clean and observed for signs of bleeding or infection. Your dog will need to be prevented from interfering with this area and an e-collar may be necessary.

Cost of Vaginal Prolapse Reduction and Resection in Dogs

Cost ranges depending on the cost of living in your area, the complexity of the procedure in each individual dog,  and whether spay accompanies the procedure. Usually, the cost of the procedure is in the $300 to $1,000 range and the cost of spaying may be in addition to this.

Dog Vaginal Prolapse Reduction and Resection Considerations

Preventing infection with sterile procedures and judicious use of antibiotics is recommended, as contamination to the protruding vaginal tissue is likely to have occurred. Care must be taken to ensure that delicate urinary tract structures are not damaged and hemorrhaging is addressed with tourniquet sutures. 

Vaginal Prolapse Reduction and Resection Prevention in Dogs

Spaying of dogs is generally effective at preventing this condition from occurring or recurring in the future. Observing your dog for signs of constipation which may contribute to this condition and getting veterinary assistance for whelping bitches during parturition if difficulties are encountered will also reduce incidence of vaginal prolapse.