What is Aplastic Anemia?
A cat suffering from aplastic anemia will begin to experience a lack of oxygen in the body. This prevents all organs from operating at their full capacity. Certain bone marrow issues that lead to aplastic anemia involve underdeveloped bone marrow being replaced by fat. In other cases, kidney failure may result in minimal or no production of erythropoietin, which is a hormone that stimulates red blood cell creation. Aplastic anemia represents 80 percent of all anemia diagnoses in cats.
Cats need a specific amount of red blood cells in the body to transport the hemoglobin molecule to all body parts for oxygenation. The average life cycle of a red blood cell is approximately two months. At this point, bone marrow (spongy tissue inside the bones) recycles the hemoglobin molecules, while the liver and spleen purify and produce more red blood cells. If the cat is suffering from a condition that damages the bone marrow, the stem cells inside the marrow may be adversely affected and slow or halt hemoglobin production. This results in an abnormally low amount of red blood cells in the body; a condition known as aplastic anemia.
Symptoms of Aplastic Anemia in Cats
If a cat is severely anemic, it will begin to exhibit signs of oxygen starvation. General exhaustion is often the first notable symptom, as the cat does not have enough red blood cells for normal bodily functions. Signs to watch for are listed as follows:
- Loss of appetite
- Pale or white gums
- Rapid breathing
- Elevated heart rate
- Inability to exercise
Causes of Aplastic Anemia in Cats
Any condition or external source that leads to bone marrow issues or poor kidney function can cause insufficient red blood cell production. Known causes include:
- Bone marrow disease
- Benign or malignant tumors of the bone marrow or kidneys
- Chronic kidney disease
- Toxin exposure
- Hormone administration
- Viral infections (such as feline leukemia virus)
- Bacterial infections (such as ehrlichia)
- Genetic predisposition
Diagnosis of Aplastic Anemia in Cats
If your cat begins to exhibit symptoms of anemia, bring it to your veterinarian at once. Be sure to provide the vet with your cat's full medical history to assist in identifying possible underlying causes of the condition. Full blood work can reveal all cell counts in the bloodstream. A complete blood count including a packed cell volume (PCV) test can provide the percent of red blood cells in a whole blood sample. For this test, the plasma is separated from the red blood cells and then both are measured. Healthy cats contain 25-45% of red blood cells in their blood. Anything less than this indicates the cat is anemic. The actual numerical red blood cell and hemoglobin counts can also be performed microscopically by a lab.
The cat should be tested for any bacterial infections that could be causing limited red blood cell production. A urinalysis can shed light on both liver and kidney function. A coagulation panel and a buccal mucosal bleeding time (BMBT) test may be run to assess how well the blood is clotting. An abdominal x-ray may be requested to check for the presence of tumors, ulcers or any internal bleeding that could be affecting the bone marrow or kidneys. If tumors are found, biopsies may be needed to check for cancer. Abdominocentesis will be performed if any fluid is present in the abdomen. A DNA test will reveal any genetic problems in the cat. The cat should also be tested for feline leukemia virus.
Treatment of Aplastic Anemia in Cats
The first task when treating a severely anemic cat is to restore the proper blood counts and blood volume. This may require supportive care to stabilize the cat. Once this is accomplished, the underlying cause of the anemia can be addressed and potentially treated.
This often involves intravenous fluid administration to boost blood volumes. Fluid should be given slowly to prevent a poor reaction from the cat. Hospitalization is required for this process.
If blood has been lost, or if blood counts are dangerously low, a blood transfusion may be needed. This may involve a transfusion of whole blood, platelets, packed cells or fresh plasma.
If bacteria has been found causing infection in the cat, a specific antibiotic will be prescribed to counteract the bacteria. This prescription will generally last 1-4 weeks.
Vitamin K Injection
If the cat is unable to clot blood due to aplastic anemia, an injection of Vitamin K may be given to aid the clotting process.
Certain medication may be prescribed to stimulate the growth of bone marrow. While this is not a permanent solution, it can improve the situation for a period of time.
Bone Marrow Transplant
If bone marrow issues are caused by feline leukemia virus, a bone marrow transplant may be an effective treatment method. It is not always offered, as not all veterinary clinics perform the surgery. Cats who undergo this surgery generally experience minimal complications.
Recovery of Aplastic Anemia in Cats
The permanent restoration of proper blood cell counts in cats can only be achieved in certain circumstances. The overall outcome will vary greatly depending on the underlying cause of aplastic anemia that has been diagnosed. If symptoms had a rapid onset, often the condition is reversible. If the anemia has existed for a long period of time, the underlying issue is often more complicated.
If the cat has undergone surgery, be sure to provide all at-home care as it has been instructed. Monitor any incision sites daily to ensure that they are clean and free of infection. All medications should be administered as prescribed. If cancer has been diagnosed, ongoing treatment and further surgeries may be needed. The cat will need follow-up appointments with the veterinarian to test if red blood cell levels are rising properly.
Aplastic Anemia Questions and Advice from Veterinary Professionals
It all started with vomiting. It was on and off so we didn’t think much of it and eventually the vomiting stopped. His appetite was good, he was eating normally, activities we normal however, he stared losing weight. Over the next couple of months he became very thin and boney. We grew very concerned at this point and took him to the vet. After 2 blood tests, uniralysis, X-Ray and ultrasound later, the vet diagnosed him with anemia as the blood tests showed low platelet count, but the white blood count was normal. His kidneys and all other organs were functionally normally. They discovered from the ultrasound that his stomach lining seemed to have been irritated. They didn’t suspect FeLV. So the vet prescribed antibiotics, deworming medication and asked us to feed him special diet to soothe his stomach lining. They also asked us to try and increase weight. We kept him at the vet’s clinic for 3 days for monitoring. During that period the vet injected him with vitamin B12, C, anti-vomiting and gave him intravenous fluid therapy, they said that would flush out any toxins. His vitals were stable throughout and he was eating/pooping normally so we were excited to bring him home. A week later, we re-visited the vet’s clinic who said that his weight had increased slightly which was a good sign. We ordered special treats to mix with his food so that he would eat a bit more. He used to love it. We were very happy that he was on his path to recovery. 3 weeks later, our boy passed away. We can’t fathom what had gone wrong and what we could’ve done better.
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I am searching desperately for answers as to why my beloved cat recently died suddenly. We don't know if it was HCM or aplastic anemia. He came down with shortness of breath and coughing just a week before he died suddenly (after coming home from the vet). I was using bioidentical progesterone cream. I don't think it was transferred to him but I'll never know. What are the symptoms of aplastic anemia vs. HCM. He also seemed to have ragdoll in his genetic background and HCM is more common in that breed. Please advise how aplastic anemia can manifest in cat. There were no symptoms of anemia other than shortness of breath.
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Can a 9 month old, FeLV be treated and cured of anemia? Or is the survival rate too low? She is at 17%, decreased appetite, hard stool, slightly less active and pink gums. Larra started licking concrete so we knew something was wrong. Shea’s started on antibiotics, hoping this would help but not likely and an appetite stimulus. She is eating better. We don’t want Larra to suffer. Is she in an pain?? So far her breathing is good, drinking water has increased, tune oitput good, constipated? How much do we do to help her survive.
We literally just had a 14m old kitten diagnosed with bone marrow disease. Can you share more about your experience?
Hey larra. I know this post is 3months old, but hope it helps you and others. Ive got a 5yr old cat thats had aplastic anemia since she was 11months old, due to bone marrow disease. Its a long constant and expensive battle but worth it.
My cat had 4% blood, which is a record low for my vet team. She had a blood transfusion and then was on atopica and prednesolone for a while until she was stable with 35% plus bloods. She does have regular relapses but with quick treatment of the prednisolone, her bloods jump up to a safer percent. Its hard at times, but it is possible to keep your cat stable with regular vet monitoring.
Good luck, hope this helps and wish you and your fur baby all the best.
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