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What are Swallowing Difficulties?

Any condition which inhibits the movement of food from the mouth to the stomach can pose a problem for your dog. Chewed food, referred to as bolus, is pushed to the back of the tongue where the swallowing reflex will propel it through the pharynx and esophagus. Continued action of the throat muscles pushes the bolus down the esophagus into the stomach. Swallowing difficulties, known as dysphagia, can be caused by many neurological and muscular conditions, as well as physical obstruction, pain, and inflammation. Short term problems will not pose a serious issue for your dog, although there may be an increased risk of choking. Chronic conditions will cause weight loss and nutritional deficiency and may be a sign of a serious degenerative condition. Dysphagia is more common in young dogs since many causes are congenital and will present themselves when puppies start to eat solid food.

Difficulties with the swallowing process in dogs can result from obstruction or from weakness and lack of coordination in the muscles. Veterinarians define this condition as dysphagia. Although not immediately life-threatening, in the long term it can lead to serious health problems.

Swallowing Difficulties Average Cost

From 367 quotes ranging from $300 - $3,500

Average Cost

$850

Symptoms of Swallowing Difficulties in Dogs

  • Gagging
  • Retching
  • Regurgitation
  • Multiple attempts to swallow
  • Excessive drooling
  • Ravenous appetite
  • Packed food stored in the cheeks
  • Impacted food in the pharynx
  • Coughing
  • Aspiration
  • Pneumonia due to aspiration

Types

Dogs may have difficulty with any of the phases of swallowing.

  • Oral dysphagia - difficulty with the first stage of swallowing, moving food to the back of the mouth.

  • Oropharyngeal dysphagia - difficulty with the pharyngeal phase of swallowing,
  • Cricopharyngeal dysphagia - difficulty moving the bolus from the pharynx to the esophagus.

  • Esophageal dysfunction - the bolus is unable to move through the esophagus normally.
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Causes of Swallowing Difficulties in Dogs

Causes of dysphagia can be structural or functional. Physical obstructions, including pain, can present a problem, or the muscles which control swallowing may be weak, uncoordinated, or defective. Some common causes include:

  • Inflammation from gastroesophageal reflux
  • Foreign object lodged in the pharynx or esophagus
  • Abscess or enlarged lymph nodes
  • Esophageal stricture - a narrowing of the esophageal muscles as a result of repeated or long-term inflammation.

  • Fracture of the mandible
  • Dental pain
  • Cyst under the tongue (sialocele)
  • Tumor Infections such as toxoplasma and neospora
  • Botulism or tick paralysis

Congenital esophagus abnormalities, usually present at birth, but some may develop later; many are found more often in certain breeds, although they may appear in any dog

  • Cricopharyngeal achalasia - condition in which the esophageal muscles are abnormally constricted and don’t allow proper swallowing, more common in Golden Retrievers, and Cocker or Springer Spaniels

  • Cricopharyngeal asynchrony - lack of proper synchronization in these same muscles
  • Vascular ring entrapment - condition in which the esophagus and trachea are partially trapped, more common among German Shepherds, Boston Terriers, and Irish Setters

  • Megaesophagus - condition in which the esophagus is enlarged, more common among Chinese Shar-Peis, Fox Terriers, German Shepherds, Great Danes, Irish Setters, Labrador Retrievers, Miniature Schnauzers, and Newfoundlands
  • Esophageal diverticula - pouch-like structure on the esophagus

  • Hiatal hernia- hernia between the stomach and the esophagus, more common in Chinese Shar-Peis and English Boxers

Any degenerative nerve or muscle disease

  • Polymyositis/Inflammatory myopathy - idiopathic inflammatory muscle disease in which immune cells infiltrate muscles causing weakness, more common in Boxers

  • Muscular dystrophy - non-inflammatory muscle degeneration disease
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Diagnosis of Swallowing Difficulties in Dogs

Your dog’s symptoms can sometimes indicate which part of the swallowing phase is creating a problem. If the difficulty is in the oral phase, food will likely remain in the mouth. Gagging, retching and multiple attempts to swallow will usually indicate a problem with bolus entering or leaving the pharynx, while regurgitation, coughing, and aspiration suggest problems with movement along the esophagus.

The veterinarian will discuss your dog’s symptoms with you. He will then perform a thorough physical examination followed by a clinical feeding test. He will evaluate each stage of swallowing as much as possible during the examination, and check for inflammation. Unless the cause is obvious, X-rays will be taken to determine if there is a physical obstruction. Contrast dyes may be added to your dog’s food so that the vet can determine where the bolus is getting stuck. If the problem appears to be neurological or related to muscle weakness, further testing will be needed to evaluate tissue degeneration.

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Treatment of Swallowing Difficulties in Dogs

If there are complicating problems like aspiration pneumonia, this will require immediate treatment. Your dog may need fluids and additional oxygen, and may spend several days in a veterinary hospital to recover.

Other treatments will depend on the cause. Foreign bodies can sometimes be easily removed. If they are more deeply lodged, surgery may be required. Surgery may also be required if an esophageal stricture has developed, and many congenital physical abnormalities can also be corrected with surgery. This will likely be minor surgery, but there is always a certain amount of risk. Your dog will spend several days in the hospital, and may be on a special diet during recovery.

Some conditions can be treated with medication. Infections may clear up with antibiotics. If the issue is acid reflux causing inflammation, antacids along with diet modification may be able to fix this problem. Medications which are causing acid reflux or are getting stuck in the throat may need to be changed or administered differently. Some muscular and neurological conditions can also be treated or at least reduced with medication. If the problem is due to a serious degenerative condition your dog may eventually need to be euthanized.

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Recovery of Swallowing Difficulties in Dogs

Many dogs will make a complete recovery from short-term problems and some long-term problems can be effectively corrected with surgery. If the problem is not correctable, diet modifications can sometimes help. Very small mouthfuls of food will make it easier for your dog to swallow, and maintaining an upright position can alleviate some problems. You may need to monitor your dog during feeding time. A liquid diet may also be prescribed by the veterinarian. Your dog will likely recover and live a fulfilling life with dysphagia, but it will depend on the underlying condition which causes it.

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Swallowing Difficulties Average Cost

From 367 quotes ranging from $300 - $3,500

Average Cost

$850

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Swallowing Difficulties Questions and Advice from Veterinary Professionals

Need pet health advice? Ask a vet

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Ask a Vet

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Mixertured colling

dog-age-icon

Seven Years

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Unknown severity

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0 found helpful

pill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filled

Unknown severity

Has Symptoms

Trouble Swallowing

My dog seem to have trouble swallowing he majes a noise when he eats an drinks like it hard to go down

Aug. 28, 2020

Owner

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Dr. Sara O. DVM

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0 Recommendations

Hello, So sorry to hear about your dog. Your dog may have issues in his throat. There may even be a mass in there causing him to have issues. It would be best for your vet to look at him. They may want to take x rays of his throat or even examine the back of his mouth to see what is causing these issues. You can try feeding soft food and feeding multiple small meals a day. I hope your dog starts to feel better soon.

Aug. 28, 2020

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Jrt

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Twelve Years

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Unknown severity

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0 found helpful

pill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filled

Unknown severity

Has Symptoms

Muscle Mass On Her Head, Won’T Bark Just Makes Squealing Noises Cant Open Her Mouth To Pick Up A Ball. Weight Loss And Very Anxious

Had blood tests taken. Bet thought leukaemia but all clear. Has stomach scanned ok apart from gall stone. Put on course of steroids. Unsure if she has a heart murmur

July 11, 2020

Owner

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Dr. Gina U. DVM

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0 Recommendations

Hello So sorry that your pet is not feeling well. I'm not exactly sure what your question is, but if she cannot open her mouth, that is concerning. It is recommended that you take her back to the vet for an exam. Only a veterinarian with a stethoscope can determine whether she has a heart murmur or not. Good luck.

July 11, 2020

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Coqui

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Border Collie

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13 Years

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Moderate severity

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0 found helpful

pill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filled

Moderate severity

Has Symptoms

Lethargy
Difficulty Swallowing
Heavy Breathing
Swollen Neck
Swollen Neck Difficulty Breathing

My dog has a swollen neck (found out by vet thru X-rays). He is having a hard time eating and swallowing food. I also noticed he has been breathing heavy. Help, I do not know what’s wrong with him now.

July 21, 2018

Coqui's Owner

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Dr. Michele K. DVM

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1611 Recommendations

Without seeing Coqui, I don't have any way of knowing what might be causing his problem, whether it is an allergic reaction, an infection, or a tumor. Since you had x-rays taken at your veterinarian, I would imagine they have an idea as to what might be happening, and it would be fine for you to contact them and ask for more explanation and what treatment might help.

July 22, 2018

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Scooter

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Small dog mix

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4 Years

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Moderate severity

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0 found helpful

pill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filled

Moderate severity

Has Symptoms

Weight Loss
Vomiting
Problems Swallowing

My baby has problems swallowing he'll chew it and swallow but then he will puke and puke it all back up as a foaming mess but then he'll eat it so does that mean he gets all of his food? He was born with other defects like he only has two legs (back) and he's had these problems for a while if not all of his life. The only way I've noticed that he will not puke his food up is if I had feed him three to four pebbles of dog food at a time

June 23, 2018

Scooter's Owner

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Dr. Michele K. DVM

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1611 Recommendations

Even though it isn't ideal, if Scooter eats the food right after it is vomited up, he should be getting enough nutrition. If you are able to feed him more slowly so that he doesn't vomit when he eats, that is probably much more pleasant for him.

June 23, 2018

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Frank

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Beagle

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11 Months

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Moderate severity

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0 found helpful

pill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filled

Moderate severity

Has Symptoms

Sick Several Times In One Day
Frantically Eating Grass To Be Sick
Several Attempts To Swallow

My 11 month old beagle has suddenly begun to eat grass continually to make himself sick and has now started to act as though he is trying to swallow over and over again. He is always finding things to pick up and chew that he shouldn't and I'm worried that he could have done this however, he also currently has an ear infection and wondered if this could be linked?

May 28, 2018

Frank's Owner

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3320 Recommendations

Sometimes severe ear infections may cause pain while swallowing which may make a dog unwilling to eat or swallow anything; however other causes for swallowing difficulties include foreign objects, trauma (especially if he is chewing and trying to swallow everything), nerve damage among other causes. You should keep Frank indoors away from the grass and any foreign objects, monitor him and have your Veterinarian examine him in case of foreign objects or other issues. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM

May 29, 2018

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Pita

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Pit bull

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6 Years

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Mild severity

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2 found helpful

pill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filled

Mild severity

Has Symptoms

Gagging
Difficulty Swallowing
Burping
Licking Everything

In the middle of the night, my 6 year old pit bull got up and kept making sounds like she wanted to throw up and then kept trying to swallow. We gave her water, and she licked the bowl clean but kept making those noises. She calmed down for a bit but kept licking everything in sight and trying to swallow. Now she is calmer but still making the hard swallowing motion and burping. I don’t know how to help her and she’s scared. Help please!!

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Simba

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Chow Chow

dog-age-icon

One Year

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Moderate severity

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0 found helpful

pill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filled

Moderate severity

Has Symptoms

Excessive Saliva

My y dog suddenly having difficult drinking water and eating. He eats rather slowly and sometimes half his food falls off from his mouth. He drinks water very slow but he takes out a lot of saliva that the water becomes foamy. His behaviour otherwise seems normal. He running around barking and playing. Just been drooling a lot and pawing at his face.I don't know whatb is going in with him. He is a year old chow chow.

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Kylie

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wheaten terrier

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11 Days

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Mild severity

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0 found helpful

pill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filled

Mild severity

Has Symptoms

Trouble Swallowing
Anxious
Nausea

My 11 year old wheaten terrier started having episodes of swallowing and gulping the past year. It happens most often at night when she'll seem to get into a frenzy and walk over for comfort. If I pet her she calms down but continues to swallow and gulp as well as occasionally licking the carpet / nearby pillows. Just recently she's been swallowing and gulping intermittently for about 72 hours. My vet believed it to be acid reflux, but giving her pepcid has not helped her these past few days and I hate for her to be so uncomfortable. Even giving her the pecid in a treat, she went into a gagging/swallowing frenzy. What can I do to keep her comfortable till her vet visit next week and what should I do in the future?

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Jessie

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Whippet cross

dog-age-icon

4 Years

pill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filled

Mild severity

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0 found helpful

pill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filled

Mild severity

Has Symptoms

My dog has started to sit back and look at her food as tho reluctant and then after few mouthfuls has difficulty swallowing briefly then con tines to finish her meal normally. Also started to be anxious when left or at bedtime

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Jessie

dog-breed-icon

Whippet cross

dog-age-icon

4 Years

pill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filled

Mild severity

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0 found helpful

pill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filled

Mild severity

Has Symptoms

Difficulty Urinating
Difficulty Rising
Difficulty Swallow

My dog has started to sit and look at food before eating as though reluctant and then after few mouthfuls briefly has difficulty swallowing, sits again then continues to finish her food normally. She has also started getting anxious at bedtime or being left

Swallowing Difficulties Average Cost

From 367 quotes ranging from $300 - $3,500

Average Cost

$850