What is Hemilaminectomy?
Hemilaminectomy is a surgical procedure used in dogs to correct slipped or herniated discs in the thoracolumbar spine. The thoracolumbar spine is located in the upper and middle region of the spine. Some cases of thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease may be treated using conservative methods such as medications and exercise restriction. In fact, these are typically the first line of treatment for acute cases. Hemilaminectomy is usually recommended for severe and recurring cases. Dwarf dog breeds, including the Dachshund, English bulldog, and Welsh Corgi, have a predisposition for developing intervertebral disc disease.
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Hemilaminectomy Procedure in Dogs
- Before surgery, diagnostic imaging will be conducted to visualize the affected disc. This can be achieved through myelogram, MRI, or CT scan.
- Blood work will be taken to ensure it is safe for the dog to undergo anesthetization.
- The dog will be anesthetized.
- A catheter and breathing tube are placed. Analgesics and anesthesia will be administered throughout surgery.
- The operative area will be shaved, cleaned, and clipped.
- The surgeon will incise the skin and subcutaneous fat tissues.
- A periosteal elevator is used to remove the connective tissue surrounding the bones of the spine.
- The surgeon will use a high-speed burr to remove the lamina, or vertebral bone, and expose the spinal cord.
- A specialized pick will be used to remove the remaining thin layer of bone covering the spinal cord.
- The ruptured disc material will be removed.
- A fat graft will be placed over the exposed portion of the spinal cord prior to incision closure.
- The dog will be hospitalized for up to seven days.
Efficacy of Hemilaminectomy in Dogs
The efficacy of this procedure will depend on the severity and symptoms of the slipped disc, although the prognosis is generally good. It is a decompression surgery, meaning that it relieves compression on the spinal cord. This usually resolves symptoms. For less severe cases, surgery carries an average success rate of 96%. Hemilaminectomy may not be as successful for dogs that do not have any sensation in their toes, or have more than one slipped disc. In these cases, it is more likely that the dog will not respond to conservative treatment. The surgery success rate for severe cases can still be as high as 76%.
Hemilaminectomy Recovery in Dogs
During hospitalization, the dog will receive twenty-four hour care. The dog will be discharged within three to seven days. Analgesics will be prescribed to manage postoperative pain. Antibiotics may also be prescribed to prevent infection. Strict cage rest is required for up to one month after surgery, or per surgeon instructions. Owners should ensure that their dog’s crate is padded and comfortable to prevent bedsores. A sling may help support the hind limbs during the recovery process, particularly when the dog is urinating and defecating. If owners observe abnormal urination behavior or symptoms of urinary tract infection, they should consult their vet immediately.
The sutures will be removed within ten to fourteen days after surgery. If owners observe swelling, drainage, or bleeding near the surgery site, they should contact their vet immediately. After the sutures are removed, the veterinarian may recommend rehabilitation therapy to speed up the recovery process.
Cost of Hemilaminectomy in Dogs
The cost of hemilaminectomy in dogs will vary based on standards of living and additional costs incurred. On average, the cost of hemilaminectomy ranges from $2,700 to $4,800 and includes the cost of preoperative testing and postoperative hospitalization.
Dog Hemilaminectomy Considerations
Complications associated with hemilaminectomy include, but may not be limited to:
- Perioperative trauma to the spinal cord
- Recurrence of the condition
Although spinal surgery is complex, these complications are considered rare in dogs. It is important to note that some of these complications may not be associated with the surgery. Sometimes, the dog’s condition is so severe that it does not respond to surgery.
Hemilaminectomy Prevention in Dogs
Intervertebral disc disease associated with breed or genetics is difficult to prevent. However, it is the owner’s responsibility to ensure their dogs do not engage in activities that may result in severe spinal cord trauma. These may include falling from heights and being hit by a vehicle.
Hemilaminectomy Questions and Advice from Veterinary Professionals
Knocked over by a larger dog. U of Ga college of Vet.Med. did everything described in above surgery. She is 2 mos. post op and doing great. Has limited strength in her hind legs but can now squat to void,on occasion she loses her balance and sits down. When trying to run her back end follows well except around corners she loses her balance. She's come along way from not being able to use her pelvic limbs. I'm wondering is there a time limit to her recovery? Seems she has progressed to the limit other than possible strengthen her hind legs????
We have Leia, a small shepherd, that is at the same post op point (just over 8 weeks) but seems a bit stronger than Darla. Our surgeon said dogs can make improvement in strength and stability for 6mos and even up to one year. We have been using cold laser treatments to reduce swelling and improve circulation. We tried underwater treadmill therapy but Leia regressed after one time. We are going to continue laser treatment one time weekly and slowly progress her increased walking with help em up harness. If she continues to improve there’s a mobile dog treadmill that comes to the house that we may use to increase the strength in her pelvic limbs. Waking at an incline helps with pelvic limb strength. See if there is a rehab vet near you that offers rehab therapy measures. This has been most helpful.
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My 12 yr. old female weimaraner had a hemilaminectomy for ruptured herniated discs with nerve compression at T13-L2. Her right hind leg weak and lame. 5 days after surgery she dies at home. She ate her breakfast, then laid down and died. She also had a heart murmur and cardiomyopathy. In your professional opinion, do you think she could have died from a stroke-a fibrocollaginous embolism or a cardiac event. My husband and I are so sad and heartbroken. Just looking for some closure. Thank You
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