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What is Glucosuria?

Glucose in the urine can be discovered during a routine veterinary appointment, or there may be symptoms leading to the need for further review of the cause. Glucosuria is considered when there is a normal blood glucose concentration, but no kidney reabsorption abnormalities. With glucosuria, there can be a normal concentration of blood glucose, but a high concentration found in the urine.

The recurring or persistent excretion of glucose in the urine is known as glucosuria (or glycosuria) in veterinary terms. The presence of glucosuria most often means a renal problem or systemic disease. Glucose in the urine in dogs should be investigated by a veterinarian, due to the many complications that can arise because of it.

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Glucosuria Average Cost

From 367 quotes ranging from $500 - $6,000

Average Cost

$2,500

Symptoms of Glucosuria in Dogs

Undetectable, to very low levels of glucose, are the norm. Serious consequences can result with a persistent reading of glucose in the urine. Many illnesses and diseases will cause glucosuria. If your dog is displaying any of the following symptoms, consult your veterinary care center without delay.

  • Increased thirst (polydipsia)
  • Increased urine output (polyuria)
  • The urine appears clear (diluted)

Kidney complications and related illnesses resulting in glucosuria may show additional signs:

  • Low appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Breath odor (halitosis)
  • Dehydration
  • Muscle weakness
  • Recurrent urinary tract infection (due to bacterial colonization in the glucose)
  • Poor hair coat
  • Vomiting
Types

The classifications of glucose in the urine are listed below.

  • Hyperglycemic (having excess of glucose in bloodstream)
    • Transient (this is a temporary case of high concentration)
    • Persistent (occurs as the result of an ongoing disease)
  • Normoglycemic (having a normal amount of glucose in bloodstream)
    • Congenital (present from birth)
    • Acquired (can be due to toxicity)
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Causes of Glucosuria in Dogs

When the blood glucose exceeds the renal threshold for normal activity, glucose is then found in the urine. There are many reasons why your furry family member could have this medical issue.

  • Transient
    • Physiologic explanation like stress
    • Pharmacologic cause resulting from the use of glucose containing solutions, drugs, or hormones like glucocorticoids
    • Toxic origin such as ingestion of ethylene glycol (antifreeze toxicity)
    • Pathologic reason like acute pancreatitis
  • Persistent
    • Pathologic cause like diabetes mellitus, hyperadrenocorticism
    • Less common can be lesions of the central nervous system and glucoganoma (tumor of the pancreas)
  • Congenital
    • Results from an inheritance like primary renal glucosuria (Scottish Terriers are predisposed)
    • Fanconi syndrome results in glucose in the urine (Basenjis are prone)
    • Other breeds that are documented most to get Fanconi syndrome are Shetland Sheepdogs, Mini Schnauzers, Labrador Retrievers, Border Terriers, Yorkshire Terriers, Whippets, Norwegian Elkhounds and mixed breeds (males and females are equally affected)
  • Acquired
    • Lead or copper toxicity
    • Dried chicken jerk treats from China
    • Outdated drugs like tetracycline
    • Acute renal failure
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Diagnosis of Glucosuria in Dogs

Upon arrival at the veterinary clinic, it may be wise to ask right away for a sterile collection jar so that you can attempt to get a urine sample. Most dogs will cooperate and urinate outside the clinic; many other dogs will have left their scent.

The collection of a fresh sample is helpful for the veterinarian. Room temperature or body temperature samples can give the most accurate readings for glucose. Your veterinarian will obtain a sample by manipulation if you are unable to provide one.

Your veterinarian will ask the following questions as she performs a physical examination.

  • What are the symptoms that your dog has been experiencing?
  • Has he had a history of a recent illness?
  • Has he been exposed to any toxins that you may know of such as drugs, copper or antifreeze?
  • How long has he been urinating frequently?
  • Is he having accidents in the house?
  • What is his food and water intake like in recent days?
  • Does he appear to be in pain?

Along with verification of the urine sample, the veterinary team will proceed with a complete blood count, biochemical profile, and electrolyte profile. If the urinalysis and the laboratory work are unable to provide complete answers, further testing could involve hexokinase or glucokinase dehydrogenase tests, which are enzymatic glucose assessments. An ultrasound of the abdomen could be needed also.

Your veterinarian, as she works on the diagnosis, will want to investigate the possibilities of other illnesses such as listed here.

  • Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
  • Hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing’s disease that results in too much glucocorticoid)
  • Diabetes mellitus (signs are polyuria and polydipsia)
  • Fanconi syndrome (a defect in the tubules of the kidney)
  • Primary renal glucosuria (glucose in the urine without hyperglycemia)
  • Hepatitis (as could be found with copper toxicity)
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Treatment of Glucosuria in Dogs

Treatment of the glucose in urine in dogs will be very specific to the cause. For instance, if your canine family member is found to have diabetes, he will be put on medical management, which could include dietary changes and medication in the form of insulin.

Fanconi syndrome does not have a cure, but guidance will be provided on how to care for your pet throughout the rest of his life with medication and control of kidney disease progression.

If drugs are causing the glucose in the urine, alternative medication will be prescribed. A toxicity like antifreeze will mean a hospital stay and detoxification treatment.

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Recovery of Glucosuria in Dogs

Recovery and home management will mean follow-up visits with your veterinarian in order to get the glucose situation under control. In the case of diabetes or Cushing’s disease, for example, the medication that your pet must take will need to be carefully monitored and controlled by the veterinary team.

Keep the team up to date on your beloved family pet’s health. Attend all follow-up appointments as directed, even if your pet appears to be back to normal. A veterinarian prescribed diet, along with vitamin and mineral supplements will be the norm. Glucose in the urine in dogs can be resolved or at the very least well managed with regular veterinary communication and care.

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Glucosuria Average Cost

From 367 quotes ranging from $500 - $6,000

Average Cost

$2,500

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Glucosuria Questions and Advice from Veterinary Professionals

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Gomboc

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Welsh Corgi

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13 Years

pill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filled

Fair severity

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5 found helpful

pill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filled

Fair severity

Has Symptoms

No Special Symptoms

My dog based on urine test has 6 mg/dl glucose in urine. Is this a sign of a problem I should be concerned? When tried to see the glucose in her urine with the indicator strip no glucosuria showed up. Her SDMA values are normal, glucose was normal, fructozamine also in normal range.Thanks for your answer.

July 27, 2018

Gomboc's Owner

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5 Recommendations

Normally glucose is present in the urine once blood glucose levels go over 180mg/dL; stress is a possibility for glucose to be present in the urine but we normally see this is cats instead of dogs. If the blood glucose, fructosamine and SDMA values were normal I wouldn’t be concerned about diabetes or kidney disease. It may have been an error in testing and should be repeated (I don’t fully trust test strips). Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM www.idexx.eu/globalassets/documents/parameters/9452-us-glucose-interpretive-summary.pdf

July 28, 2018

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Willow

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Cavoodle

dog-age-icon

3.5 years

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Fair severity

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3 found helpful

pill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filled

Fair severity

Has Symptoms

Unsteady
Glucose Found In Urine Sample

I took my dog into the vet after noticing slight unsteadiness after ball time. Blood tests revealed issues with kidneys and urine sample showed glucose in the urine. It was an old food container i used so could have been tainted. She isn't displaying any symptoms except not drinking quite enough water right now. could she be simply dehydrated?

Nov. 21, 2017

Willow's Owner

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3 Recommendations

It is important to make sure that any dog is hydrated, but I would recommend you ask your Veterinarian for a sterile sample jar to collect a urine sample just to do the test again to eliminate any possible contaminants and get a clean reading. If the blood tests revealed kidney issues, hydration is more important and dietary changes are key. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM

Nov. 21, 2017

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Glucosuria Average Cost

From 367 quotes ranging from $500 - $6,000

Average Cost

$2,500

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