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Pyloric obstruction is a dangerous condition that can quickly become a life threatening emergency. Complications due to the obstruction may include extreme weight loss, vitamin deficiency, metabolic disturbances, and aspiration pneumonia, which can be fatal. This obstruction most often affects males and young dogs with short faces (brachycephalic) such as the bulldog and Boston Terrier. Toy breeds such as the Maltese, Shih Tzu, and Lhasa Apso are also susceptible to pyloric stenosis and obstruction when they are over seven years old.
Pyloric stenosis in dogs is when the pyloric canal is too narrow and induces a pyloric obstruction. This means that there is a thickening of the pyloric valve or sphincter that is stopping the food from digesting properly. It could also be spasms causing the pyloric sphincter to contract and not let the food pass from the stomach. The response is that the vomiting reflex is triggered because the food has no other way to get out of the stomach. Once your dog has vomited, eating is usually continued because your pet is still hungry and not getting any nutrients from the food that was vomited. This condition can be serious if your dog inhales food or vomit into the lungs because it can cause pneumonia.
There are many symptoms of pyloric obstruction or stenosis, which may include:
Pyloric obstruction has two forms, which are:
Pyloric obstruction is more common in males than females. In addition, there are several breeds that are most affected, which include:
Other causes include:
Your dog’s health background is the most important factor in determining pyloric obstruction because the symptoms are usually only seen after a meal. However, the veterinarian will be able to notice signs of the condition by doing an endoscopic examination as well as a comprehensive physical assessment. The endoscopic examination is done by inserting an endoscope (long flexible lighted tube) through your dog’s mouth and into the digestive tract. Your dog will be sedated during the procedure for safety and it only takes about 10-15 minutes.
Afterwards the veterinarian will do a detailed examination including mucous membrane color, coat condition, and reflexes. A radiographic examination may be done next and may consist of x-rays with and without contrast (barium) and ultrasound to check for thickened walls in the pyloric area. CT scans or an MRI may also be helpful, though will only be done if earlier testing does not provide the required information. Laboratory tests are performed last, including a urinalysis and complete blood count.
There are several treatments (both medical and surgical) depending on what caused the pyloric obstruction. However, surgery is usually needed to fix the problem permanently.
Intravenous fluids and electrolytes will be started if not already started during endoscopy. Also, your veterinarian may prescribe prokinetic medication such as erythromycin, cisapride, or metoclopramide.
In most cases, surgery is needed to fix the obstruction, especially if it is causing serious complications. The procedures used to fix the problem may be a pyloroplasty to open the area using a flap, a pyloromyotomy to open the area through the layer of muscle, or a gastroduodenostomy to bypass the pylorus if one of the other methods are not possible.
In any case, you will need to provide your pet with a special diet after treatment. Most often, it will include a soft and bland diet with a high nutrient count.
Prognosis depends on the cause, but it is generally good if the condition is found and treated right away. If there is an underlying condition or complication the prognosis may be a bit different. For example, adenocarcinomas can be serious, gastroenteritis and gastritis can be recurrent, and acquired antral pyloric gastropathy may be difficult to treat.
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0 found helpful
Which has better prognosis in extracting a small ball (1.75" diameter mini tennis-ball) that's been in my dog for about a month and had just entered the Pyloric region of his stomach (as noted by his regurgitation for the past 24 hours as well as the X-rays)?
June 28, 2018
Given the size of the ball and Kiko’s size based on her breed I would recommend a standard gastrostomy if there are no other issues; however any approach to foreign object removal is at the discretion of the Veterinarian performing the surgery, if there are any other factors or complications they will take these into account when determining surgery. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM https://wagwalking.com/treatment/gastrostomy
June 29, 2018
Yes thank you. We had already gone to have the X-rays yesterday and scheduled for surgery this coming Monday morning. I realize this is a standard procedure however, I’m still a little scared of anyone CUTTING into my boy if u know what I mean! Ugh However as u know, If I wait, additional risks/complications could arise! Thank you nevertheless! Art n Kiko
June 29, 2018
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