What is Partial Limb Amputation?
Amputation refers to the surgical removal of a limb from the body of an animal. This is most often done in dogs as a result of massive trauma that continues to pose a significant risk to the dog's life. By removing the limb, the vet can mitigate the effect of the damage and allow the dog to survive. A partial amputation, however, refers to removing just one segment of the limb, in an effort to preserve the dog's ability to easily move and manipulate objects. In general, amputation is regarded as a last-resort option due to the drastic nature of the surgery and vets will exhaust all other alternatives before considering the use of the procedure.
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Partial Limb Amputation Procedure in Dogs
Before starting the amputation, the dog will have to be sedated with a general anesthetic, eliminating the chances of them moving during surgery. The next step is to shave and disinfect a band of skin around the limb where the incision will be made. The surgeon will then cut through the skin and peel it back before making another incision further up the leg directly into the flesh, leaving a 'flap' of skin below. They will then cut down through the entire limb before closing off the blood vessels and cleaning the wound. The final stage is to close the 'flap' of skin across the stump and suture it shut, thereby preventing potentially dangerous debris from entering the wound during the healing process. The entire process will usually take just over an hour, dependent on the exact methods and equipment used.
Efficacy of Partial Limb Amputation in Dogs
Amputation of a catastrophically damaged or infected portion of a limb will stop the condition in its tracks, allowing the dog to recuperate. After it has been completed, there are various steps that can be taken in order to improve the dog's quality of life, including the fitting of prosthetics or physiotherapy to get the animal used to moving with only three complete limbs. Alternative treatments such as wound debridement can be used to combat infections, but at a certain point, leaving infected tissue attached to the body can do more harm than good. Likewise, internal fixation of crushed bones can prove effective to a degree, but there is a limit to the amount of damage that can be realistically repaired with this method.
Partial Limb Amputation Recovery in Dogs
The majority of dogs that undergo a partial limb amputation can be expected to make a full physical recovery within the space of six or so weeks, with older animals requiring slightly more time. In that time, the dog will require regular visits to the vet in order for them to check that the animal is healing properly and that they are adapting well to the loss of the limb. They will also need a several-week long period of rest, where their level of activity is heavily restricted in order to prevent the re-opening of the surgical wound. Painkillers and antibiotics will also be needed during this stage in order to prevent undue discomfort and infections. Physiotherapy will also be needed during this period, in order to strengthen the muscles in the dog's leg and to possibly get them used to using a prosthetic.
Cost of Partial Limb Amputation in Dogs
There is a variety of factors that can influence the price of having a partial limb amputation performed on a dog. These include such things as the age of the animal, the specific condition being treated, and the predicted duration of both the surgery itself and the aftercare period. Generally, the operation can be expected to cost over $1,000 in total, with extra funds being required for the fitting of a prosthetic. As mentioned earlier, there are alternative treatments available (such as debridement and internal fixation), but their prices typically range in the high hundreds of dollars.
Dog Partial Limb Amputation Considerations
Whilst the procedure is a very effective means of saving a dog's life in an emergency situation, some owners may understandably have doubts about having such a drastic operation performed on their pet. The foremost concern is often regarding the potential psychological trauma that amputation of a limb may have on a dog. Interestingly, the loss of a limb has virtually no discernable impact on a dog's demeanor, with the animal instead trying to go about their routine as normal. Some owners are also worried about the dog's ability to move easily after the operation. Although there is some loss of agility, the dog will usually be able to compensate for their loss of a limb and maintain a healthy level of exercise.
Partial Limb Amputation Prevention in Dogs
The injuries that commonly lead to amputation are predominantly caused by the dog being hit by vehicles. Making changes to the dog's lifestyle in order to minimize its time spent around roads and traffic will help considerably when it comes to avoiding such accidents. Additionally, taking the time to properly clean wounds (especially those to the pads of the paws) when they crop up will mitigate the chances of bacteria getting a foothold. Cancers can also sometimes necessitate the removal of part of a leg, but are much harder to predict and detect.