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What are Bleeding Disorders?

Any breed of dog at any age may have a bleeding disorder; however, there are higher correlations of specific breeds and certain types.

A bleeding disorder is any irregularity that disrupts a dog’s hemostasis, or its body’s natural process to cease bleeding. For hemostasis to function, your dog’s body requires appropriate blood clotting factors, constriction of blood vessels, and number of platelets.

Bleeding Disorders Average Cost

From 210 quotes ranging from $500 - $10,000

Average Cost

$6,500

Symptoms of Bleeding Disorders in Dogs

Specific symptoms are exhibited for specific types of bleeding disorders, although common symptoms that may indicate your dog has a bleeding disorder are:

  • Spontaneous bleeding
  • Excessive bleeding
  • Nosebleeds
  • Excessive bruising
  • Lameness

Depending upon the severity of your dog’s bleeding disorder, you may not notice excessive bleeding until your dog suffers a severe injury or undergoes surgery.

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Causes of Bleeding Disorders in Dogs

Congenital Clotting Protein Disorders

are genetically inherited deficiencies in specific proteins necessary for blood clots to form.

Hypofibrinogenemia is a deficiency in fibrinogen and is most highly associated with the Saint Bernard and Vizsla breeds and severe bleeding.

Deficiency of Factor VII occurs when there is not enough of a clotting protein called Factor VII, is found in the Beagle, English Bulldog, Alaskan Malamute, Miniature Schnauzer and Boxer breeds, and is associated with bruising and excessive bleeding during surgery.

Hemophilia A is a deficiency of Factor VIII, and the most common congenital bleeding disorder. Females are typically carriers of the disorder while males exhibit symptoms. Dogs with severe cases of Hemophilia A exhibit internal bleeding while others may exhibit excessive bleeding from the umbilical site after birth and excessive bleeding during surgery.

Acquired Clotting Protein Disorders occur as a result of liver disease, as the liver produces most of your dog’s clotting proteins, or in cases of liver toxicity, such as Vitamin K poisoning via rodenticide.

Platelet Disorders are any irregularity in platelet count or functioning, and may be congenital or acquired.

Thrombocytopenia is the condition of having too few platelets, disabling the body’s ability to form clots. Congenital thrombocytopenia can occur when a mother produces antibodies against proteins in the fetus’ platelets that her body deems foreign. Acquired thrombocytopenia is an autoimmune disorder in which a dog’s body destroys its own platelets. It may be caused by a reaction to certain drugs (such as estrogen, aspirin, acetaminophen, and antibiotics) or vaccinations.

Canine Thombopathia is a congenital defect in the function of platelets. There may be the correct number of platelets; however, hey are unable to clot properly. This disease has been found in the Basset Hound breed only and is characterized by symptoms of nosebleed, bleeding gums, and tiny spot-like bruises over the dog’s skin.

Von Willebrand’s Disease occurs in a dog that has a deficiency in von Willebrand’s factor, the protein that regulates the onset of clot formation. This is the most common congenital bleeding disorder and is found in all breeds. However, it is most common in the Doberman Pinscher, German Shepherd, Golden Retriever, Miniature Schnauzer, Pembroke Welsh Corgi, Standard Manchester Terrier, Standard Poodle, Scottish Terrier, Basset Hound and Shetland Sheepdog breeds.

Blood Vessel Disorders may be congenital or acquired as a result of other diseases.

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome is known as rubber puppy disease or cutaneous asthenia. It is a congenital defect in the proteins that make up the skin’s connective tissue, leading to blood clots and over-sensitive bruising.

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is the common name for the disease caused by the Rickettsia rickettsii parasite transmitted by ticks. The parasite kills blood cells, causing vessels to swell. Symptoms include nosebleeds, bruises, bloody urine or feces, and bleeding of the retina.

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Diagnosis of Bleeding Disorders in Dogs

You will need to report thoroughly your dog’s symptoms, their severity, and onset in order to ensure and prompt diagnosis. It is important to distinguish if the abnormal or excessive bleeding occurs spontaneously or only as a result of injury or surgery. The veterinarian will begin with a physical examination in order to search for bruises and signs of bleeding. Because there are so many different types of bleeding disorders, your dog’s breed may help the veterinarian in developing a hypothesis to test. A urinalysis will be conducted in order to examine the proteins in your dog’s urine. A complete blood count is an important diagnostic tool, as it will indicate abnormal red or white blood cell or platelet count. This test will also determine if your dog has anemia as a result of blood loss. Additionally, a chemical blood profile will be conducted in order to measure for electrolytes and other elements, for instance, vitamin K, which would indicate that your dog has an acquired clotting disorder caused by vitamin K toxicity.

Other tests will likely include simulated bleeding on a very small scale in order to measure Buccal Mucosal Bleeding Time, Activated Clotting Time and Activated Partial Thromboplastins Time, and Prothombin Time, which evaluates clotting factors.

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Treatment of Bleeding Disorders in Dogs

Treatment will vary according to the specific bleeding disorder with which your dog is diagnosed. Dogs with a decreased platelet count may require a platelet transfusion; dogs with anemia may require a cell transfusion whether it's a whole blood or packed red blood cell type. Congenital bleeding disorders will need to be managed while acquired bleeding disorders will require identification and treatment of the underlying cause itself.

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Recovery of Bleeding Disorders in Dogs

Follow all of the veterinarian’s instructions for at-home care and checkups. In some cases of congenital bleeding disorders, you may need to manage your dog’s excessive bleeding. If your dog is having an episode, restrict movement. If your dog has exhibited bleeding gums, only feed soft food and do not let your dog access bones or hard chew toys.

If your dog has a congenital bleeding disorder, you should have your dog spayed or neutered in order to prevent passing the disorder along.

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Bleeding Disorders Average Cost

From 210 quotes ranging from $500 - $10,000

Average Cost

$6,500

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Bleeding Disorders Questions and Advice from Veterinary Professionals

Need pet health advice? Ask a vet

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Ask a Vet

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Conor

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Corgi Cattle Dog

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11 Years

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Serious severity

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Bleeding Tumor

My 11 yr old corgi mix was diagnosed with mast cell cancer this past Monday..The tumor is very red and nasty and is located on the left hind quarters..The tumor will not stop bleeding..my vet is aware of this but is not being very pro active about how to treat it..In the meantime my dog is still bleeding.. What would you do for a dog with this problem?

July 19, 2018

Conor's Owner

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Dr. Michele K. DVM

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If the tumor is bleeding and not controlled, surgical removal would be the best alternative, as soon as possible. Without seeing Conor, I can't comment on his particular situation, but generally, that is what we tend to do.

July 19, 2018

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Ella

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pit bull terrier

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3 Years

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Moderate severity

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1 found helpful

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Vomiting
Bloody Urine

My dog got put on vitamin K1 for Congenital Clotting Protein Disorder. Is this the right path to be going on and will she fully recover in time or is this an issue that will always have to be monitored?

May 8, 2018

Ella's Owner

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1 Recommendations

There are various different congenital clotting disorders which may affect dogs, without knowing which one Ella is suffering from I cannot say what treatment she should be on. I’ve added a link below to a page on clotting disorders in dogs for your reference. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM www.msdvetmanual.com/dog-owners/blood-disorders-of-dogs/bleeding-disorders-of-dogs#v3201014

May 8, 2018

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Mar

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Mix --spaniel x lab?

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9 Years

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Moderate severity

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Hi- I have a 9 yr old female lab/spaniel mix. She's 48 lbs and has had a bleeding right nostril for the past 2years. *Rarely* bleeds and it had stopped but now it's back and every day for the last week. The vet just put her on Chinese herbs that are supposed to help with clotting (haven't yet but it's only been 2-3 days). Her Blood panel/levels etc were fine... no issues. Poop isn't black.. normal.

March 19, 2018

Mar's Owner

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2 Recommendations

The Chinese herbs are most likely yunnan baiyao which is something I recommend myself to help with unwanted bleeding like nosebleeds; there are many different causes for nosebleeds and in chronic cases like this the underlying cause needs to be determined (including tumours, infections, dental disorders, foreign objects among other causes). Try to see how the yunnan baiyao works but further investigation may be required. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM

March 20, 2018

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Osa

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Bernedoodle miniature

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2 Years

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Serious severity

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Has Symptoms

Bleeding Gums (Not A Dental Issue),
Red Spots On Belly (Blood Blisters)
Blood Not Clotting Low Platelets
10Lbs Overweight W No Clear Reason
Over Heats Easily
Not A Fan Of Exercise
Overheats Easily

My 2 year old bernedoodle minerature got red dots on her belly then 2 days later her gums started bleeding. She is not clotting and after tests doesn't have the platelets to clot. They are running more blood tests now. She has had trouble keeping her weight down the last year and is about 10 pounds overweight. She is not a super active dog. Has never been excited about going on walks even though we take her everyday. Not sure if any of that is connected but thought I'd share. Any thoughts on what it could be? They didn't do a urine test and after reading the bleeding disorders I think I should ask them to. Any other tests I should ask for? They did give her k vitamin capsules right away as a precaution which seemed odd. Any way any advice is much appreciated.

Jan. 26, 2018

Osa's Owner

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There are various causes for low platelets which may include an increase in use (clotting), an increase in destruction (infections, parasites, toxins, immune mediated diseases) or a decrease in production (liver disease, kidney disease, bone marrow issues among other causes). I would check the liver (blood test and ultrasound) to look for any anomalies but otherwise I cannot think of anything else which would be useful for you at this time. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM

Jan. 26, 2018

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freddy

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american micky bulldog

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2 and a half

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Moderate severity

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0 found helpful

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Moderate severity

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what would cause full bleeding in a dog penis while erect with a greenish discharge...imflamed errected penis ..happened when a female was around but has had 1 previous litter..all healthy ..help to put penis back in didnt know what to do to help him...today theres a greenish/white viley looking muckus

Dec. 2, 2017

freddy's Owner

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There are a few possible causes, but if Freddy has trouble retracting the penis back in the the prepuce (sheath or foreskin), it may be a case that he has phimosis where inflammation causes a stricture at the end of the prepuce leading to difficulty; this may be caused by infection, trauma or other sources of inflammation. If the infection wasn’t the initiating cause, there is most likely a secondary infection now; an examination of the penis and prepuce is required to determine whether surgery is required (in severe cases) and antibiotics. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM

Dec. 2, 2017

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Mowgli

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Golden Retriever

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2 Years

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Moderate severity

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Our dog is neutered 3days back. He appears to be normal but he is bleeding intermittently especially when his posture pressures the stitches area. We can not keep an eye whole day so we checked with the vet she gave medicine for clotting but it appears to be not working. We will go and check up with her but I would like to seek your guidance in narrowing down the possibilities of the condition.

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Augie

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German Shepard Mix

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1 Year

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Serious severity

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Hematoma

Hello, Following a vaccination my dog developed a hematoma on his back. We brought him to our vet who immediately transferred us to an emergency clinic. Our dog showed signs of anemia and we were told our dog was bleeding internally and need blood transfusions. After the blood transfusions his red blood cell count increased and clotting factor indicated the bleeding had stopped. Further tests resulted in a diagnosis of Hemophilia A. He has been home for about a week now and the hematoma has gotten larger in size. We believe he is irritating it by scratching it. There are no signs of internal bleeding such as fever or pale gums. He is behaving completely normal other than the itching the hematoma. Is it normal for the hematoma to still be large after 1 week and possibly a little bigger than it was? Our vet wants us to get his blood taken again to check his levels but I don't feel comfortable having him poked again with a needle knowing this could cause more damage.

Bleeding Disorders Average Cost

From 210 quotes ranging from $500 - $10,000

Average Cost

$6,500

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