What is Retinal Dysplasia?
The term retinal dysplasia really just means a malformation within the retina while dysplasia simply means that there is an abnormal or unusual development within a structure. RD can reduce the vision of your dog’s eye and is usually a genetically inherited condition. This condition does not cause your pet any pain. In a normal eye, the retina lines the rear of the eye and receives light that stimulates it to transmit information it receives about its environment to the brain where the information becomes the vision. The process of abnormal development of this process causes the vision impairment.
Although not painful nor progressive, retinal dysplasia is characterised by round clumps or folds forming within the tissue of the retina.
Symptoms of Retinal Dysplasia in Dogs
- With retinal dysplasia in dogs, there are few noticeable symptoms apart from hesitancy to leap off things or seeming to be clumsy
- Your dog may bump into objects or may not be able to find things that you would expect him to such as a ball or a toy
- Reluctance to jump down off a ledge
- Reluctance to maneuver the stairs
- Hesitancy in walking into dark rooms or hallways
- Difficulty in recognising people or objects
- Color changes within the eye
- Behavioral changes
There are three distinct types of retinal dysplasia in dogs which relate to the formation of the condition and the effect on the eye.
- Multi-focal retinal dysplasia is characterised by small folds within the tissue of the retina that fade as your dog ages but may cause vision blind spots
- Geographic retinal dysplasia has irregular shaped lesions that appear instead of the fold, or alongside them in the retina tissue; they cause visual impairment or even blindness
- Complete retinal dysplasia is the most difficult form of retinal dysplasia and detachment causing blindness; this condition can cause other conditions to form such as glaucoma
Causes of Retinal Dysplasia in Dogs
- The loss of vision is caused by abnormal development of the retina which is present at birth
- This disorder is either inherited from the parents, or your puppy may have acquired it through abnormalities within the womb such as a viral infection
- The retina of your dog’s eye has two layers which in normal situations should form develop together
- In the condition of RD, the two layers are deformed, which causes folds or creases between the layers
- The deterioration of the retina causes oxidation to occur which further compromises the cells
- Vision is then compromised
Diagnosis of Retinal Dysplasia in Dogs
Because this is an insidious condition that slowly develops and has no outward visible signs of a problem (except in the advanced stages), diagnosis is usually made at an advanced stage of vision loss. In the advanced stages, PRA is usually followed by the growth of cataracts in both eyes of your dog. As tissue of the retina slowly withers and dies, the release of toxic by-products is absorbed by the lens which can cause damage and promote the growth of the cataract which in turn aggravates the loss of your dog’s vision.
Diagnosis is done via your veterinarian examination of your dog, especially if you have a young puppy. An ophthalmoscope will be used to examine the eyes at 12 -16 weeks or so of age, because the retina has matured enough to notice any imperfections. The specialist may then advise on a course of supportive anti-oxidants which are specific towards prolonging the health of your puppy or dog’s eyes. At an early stage in life, this treatment has shown promising signs in research that it can extend the healthy life of the retina and prolong the onset of vision loss.
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Treatment of Retinal Dysplasia in Dogs
There is no treatment for this condition. While there is ongoing research, there is nothing yet to prevent this condition from occurring. Prevention comes in the form of not breeding your dog if he has this condition as it will pass the genes on to the next generation. There is research that has found that has found that a specific antioxidant supplement may slow down the destruction of the retina, but you will need to discuss this with your veterinarian. Because this condition is not obvious at birth, by the time it does become noticeable it is usually well advanced and supportive care is the only option.
You will find that your dog adjusts well to life and will learn to live with the vision it does have. Usually they develop their other senses such as their hearing and smell that will compensate for any loss in vision. You can make your dog’s life easier if he is affected by this condition by walking him with a lease or harness, and ensuring his environment is safe for him to get around. Close any outside gates so he doesn’t wander out onto the street and get lost or injured. This applies also to swimming pool gates or protect him from the pool or a pond if there is no fence. Your veterinarian will be able to advise you on his health care.
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Recovery of Retinal Dysplasia in Dogs
Environment management is the only option as this condition does not have a treatment or cure. If your dog’s vision is compromised, you just need to ensure that the house and yard is safe for him to live a normal life. Your dog will adapt as all dogs do, and they will compensate for their incomplete vision by developing a strong sense of smell and hearing which will help them to get around. Ensuring you monitor them where there are steps or if you are near a pond or pool as they may not see the danger and fall in and while good swimmers they may not be able to see clearly and panic. Administering a specific antioxidant supplement will help maintain the health of your dog’s eyes and may help to prolong the vision so talk to your veterinarian eye specialist about this option.