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What is Marek's Disease?

Marek’s disease is a common disease that may affect your chickens. It spreads quickly through a flock, affecting young birds between the ages of 8 and 20 weeks of age. If you raise chickens, it is vital to understand the signs of this virulent disease so that you can take action against it. There is no cure, with prevention being the most important course of action to take. The disease occurs most commonly as the nervous form, with progressive paralysis in one or both limbs, and sometimes showing in the neck or wings as one of the main symptoms.

Marek’s disease is highly contagious amongst chicken flocks and is caused by the herpesvirus. There is no cure and it brings a high mortality rate.

Symptoms of Marek's Disease in Birds

  • Vision impairment, with a change in the eye colour showing a grey iris or irregular pupil 
  • Skin change in texture around the feather follicles, often appearing raised and bumpy 
  • Lameness and leg weakness without any visible signs of swelling or heat within the limb 
  • Partial or progressive paralysis of the limbs is a typical symptom of Marek’s disease 
  • The paralysis can also affect your chicken’s neck or wings causing your bird distress  
  • Loss of weight due to the inability to reach the water and their feed  
  • Difficulty in breathing 
  • Diarrhea 

Types  

Nervous Form

 The most common type of Marek’s disease begins as a progressive paralysis of the neck or wings, and limbs, affecting the sciatic nerve (main leg nerve). If your bird has this type of MD it may seem uncoordinated on its feet. Paralysis takes over very quickly and blindness can occur.

Visceral Form

This presents as tumors within the internal organs of your bird such as ovaries, spleen, liver and heart. Symptoms include depression, paralysis, loss of weight, anemia (pale combs) and sometimes diarrhea. Your bird may die suddenly without any sign of the disease.

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Causes of Marek's Disease in Birds

  • Marek’s disease is caused by the herpesvirus or more specifically, it is a DNA virus 
  • This highly contagious disease (among your chickens) is spread by chicken dander (dust) through inhalation 
  • This condition increases the risk of other diseases as the immune system is compromised 
  • It can also spread rapidly through contact with other contaminated chickens in the flock 
  • Dander from other wild birds, the wind, human shoes can all spread the disease 
  • It can be spread through environmental factors such as an infected enclosure
  • MD can survive in the soil where chickens are kept for at least five months
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Diagnosis of Marek's Disease in Birds

If your notice any of the symptoms of Marek’s disease within your bird population you will need veterinary assistance to diagnosis this condition. On examination, the symptoms will be a major factor, and if any of your flock have died, a post mortem will confirm your veterinarian’s analysis. With post mortem findings, the enlargement of the nerves such as the sciatic nerve will be obvious, and changes within the internal organs may be visible. 

There is a vaccination (for commercial poultry but small doses are not yet available to the backyard bird keeper) against MD that is advisable for your birds; it is not a cure, it only helps your bird to build up a resistance to the disease. In other words, if your bird is vaccinated, it is not a guarantee that it will not catch this disease, but it will be better protected against it. Marek’s disease is a common virus that occurs where there a flock of chickens being raised. It can spread rapidly in unvaccinated birds, so that they become infected. They can carry the virus for life and can shed the virus through the feather follicles which then spreads rapidly in the dust and fluff in the environment. One thing to note, it is not spread from the hen to the chick through the egg, and the meat and eggs from infected birds are safe to eat.

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Treatment of Marek's Disease in Birds

There is no cure or treatment for Marek’s disease. Those birds who are diseased should be removed from the others, and, sadly, humanely destroyed. Close monitoring of your remaining birds to see if they are infected is important. Although vaccinations are commonly used for those commercial poultry farmers, it is not available in small doses for the hobby poultry keeper. If you are buying new birds, choose from a commercial source that has vaccinated its stock. Although it will not prevent your birds from getting this disease, it will make them more resistant to it.

Preventative measures are also important, such as ensuring chicks are separated and reared so that they don’t get the infected fluff and dust of older birds. A regular clean out of the shed or enclosure, and equipment such as feeding bowls is very important. Disinfecting these areas will help prevent MD. Superior quality feed and regular treatment from parasites is also good practice. By practicing good management, it will ensure your birds have the best chance to resist Marek’s disease. Consult your veterinarian regularly as to the annual care for members of your backyard flock.

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Recovery of Marek's Disease in Birds

There is no cure for this disease. There is only prevention and management of your birds. Because MD is spread via chicken dander and dust, maintaining good conditions within enclosures is important. Sterilising of the utensils, perches and even relocating the birds to another enclosure while you turn over and treat the soil (if you have a dirt floor) is a good routine to get into. MD is not contagious to humans thankfully. But care with new breeding stock or chicks from reputable breeders who vaccinate their birds is important. Because this disease is so contagious it can travel through your flock of birds leaving them decimated within weeks. Prevention is an essential part of bird rearing management.

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Marek's Disease Questions and Advice from Veterinary Professionals

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Milk and Oreo

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Bird

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6 Months

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Critical severity

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12 found helpful

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Critical severity

Has Symptoms

Leg Paralysis Won’T Eat Or Drink

We had 9 chickens about 6 months old. We went on vacation and my parents kept an eye on them. When we got home one chicken would not get up. My parents said she was acting weird for a few days. We brought her inside and it was as if her legs were paralyzed. She died that night. Two others we noticed could not hop up onto their roosting bars and one layed down at the back of the coop. The next day she hadn’t moved. Her legs are paralyzed and she won’t eat or drink. We separated these two chickens and the one has not been able to use her legs since Thursday. We are giving her water with electrolytes with a syringe. We don’t think she will make it. The other chicken is still able to walk and eats and drinks fine. She’s just moving slowly and not herself. Could this be Marek’s disease? Please help!

Sept. 16, 2018

Milk and Oreo's Owner

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Group of chickens

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Plymouth Rocks

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7 Months

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Moderate severity

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0 found helpful

pill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filledpill-rating-filled

Moderate severity

Has Symptoms

Mareks

I have some Plymouth Rock one pullet died very suddenly another very unwell stumbling took her the vet did a necropsy came back not Mareks but a very rare tumour. Then 2 day's ago my rooster he was about 8 months ago started limping then could not walk. Went to the vet he was euthenized had a necropsy done by that vet he had tumours in his liver consistent with Mareks. I have 3 remaining pullets and 3 hens and one young rooster the brother of the one that died. Do you think I could lose the whole flock none are symptomatic. The other chickens it all happened over the last 6 weeks. Thanks Judy

Aug. 16, 2018

Group of chickens' Owner


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0 Recommendations

It is possible that all may be lost over time, however you may want to think of culling and repopulation since you have a small number of chickens; you should discuss with your Veterinarian. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM

Aug. 16, 2018

Thank you for advice regards Judy

Aug. 17, 2018

Group of chickens's Owner

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