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What is Marek's Disease?

Marek’s disease is a very common disease that may affect your chickens. It spreads quickly through a flock, affecting young birds between the ages of 8 and 20 weeks of age. If you raise chickens, it is vital to understand the signs of this virulent disease so that you can take action against it. There is no cure, with prevention being the most important course of action to take. The disease occurs most commonly as the nervous form, with progressive paralysis in one or both limbs, and sometimes showing in the neck or wings as one of the main symptoms.

Marek’s disease is highly contagious amongst chicken flocks and is caused by the herpesvirus. There is no cure and it brings a high mortality rate.

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Symptoms of Marek's Disease in Birds

  • Vision impairment, with a change in the eye colour showing a grey iris or irregular pupil 
  • Skin change in texture around the feather follicles, often appearing raised and bumpy 
  • Lameness and leg weakness without any visible signs of swelling or heat within the limb 
  • Partial or progressive paralysis of the limbs is a typical symptom of Marek’s disease 
  • The paralysis can also affect your chicken’s neck or wings causing your bird distress  
  • Loss of weight due to the inability to reach the water and their feed  
  • Difficulty in breathing 
  • Diarrhea 

Types  

Nervous Form

 The most common type of Marek’s disease begins as a progressive paralysis of the neck or wings, and limbs, affecting the sciatic nerve (main leg nerve). If your bird has this type of MD it may seem uncoordinated on its feet. Paralysis takes over very quickly and blindness can occur.

Visceral Form

This presents as tumors within the internal organs of your bird such as ovaries, spleen, liver and heart. Symptoms include depression, paralysis, loss of weight, anemia (pale combs) and sometimes diarrhea. Your bird may die suddenly without any sign of the disease.

Causes of Marek's Disease in Birds

  • Marek’s disease is caused by the herpesvirus or more specifically, it is a DNA virus 
  • This highly contagious disease (among your chickens) is spread by chicken dander (dust) through inhalation 
  • This condition increases the risk of other diseases as the immune system is compromised 
  • It can also spread rapidly through contact with other contaminated chickens in the flock 
  • Dander from other wild birds, the wind, human shoes can all spread the disease 
  • It can be spread through environmental factors such as an infected enclosure
  • MD can survive in the soil where chickens are kept for at least five months

Diagnosis of Marek's Disease in Birds

If your notice any of the symptoms of Marek’s disease within your bird population you will need veterinary assistance to diagnosis this condition. On examination, the symptoms will be a major factor, and if any of your flock have died, a post mortem will confirm your veterinarian’s analysis. With post mortem findings, the enlargement of the nerves such as the sciatic nerve will be obvious, and changes within the internal organs may be visible. 

There is a vaccination (for commercial poultry but small doses are not yet available to the backyard bird keeper) against MD that is advisable for your birds; it is not a cure, it only helps your bird to build up a resistance to the disease. In other words, just because your bird is vaccinated it is no guarantee that it will not catch this disease. Marek’s disease is a common virus that occurs where there a flock of chickens being raised. It can spread rapidly in unvaccinated birds, so that they become infected. They can carry the virus for life and can shed the virus through the feather follicles which then spreads rapidly in the dust and fluff in the environment. One thing to note, it is not spread from the hen to the chick through the egg, and the meat and eggs from infected birds are perfectly safe to eat.

Treatment of Marek's Disease in Birds

There is no cure or treatment for Marek’s disease. Those birds who are diseased should be removed from the others, and sadly humanely destroyed. Close monitoring of your remaining birds to see if they are infected is important. Although vaccinations are commonly used for those commercial poultry farmers, it is not available in small doses for the hobby poultry keeper. If you are buying new birds choose from a commercial source that has vaccinated its stock. Although it will not prevent your birds from getting this disease, it will make them more resistant to it.

Preventative measures are also important, such as ensuring chicks are separated and reared so that they don’t get the infected fluff and dust of older birds. A regular clean out of the shed or enclosure, and equipment such as feeding bowls is very important. Disinfecting these areas will help prevent MD. Superior quality feed and regular treatment from parasites is also good practice. By practicing good management, it will ensure your birds have the best chance to resist Marek’s disease. Consult your veterinarian regularly as to the annual care for members of your backyard flock.

Recovery of Marek's Disease in Birds

There is no cure for this disease. There is only prevention and management of your birds. Because MD is spread via chicken dander and dust, maintaining good conditions within enclosures is important. Sterilising of the utensils, perches and even relocating the birds to another enclosure while you turn over and treat the soil (if you have a dirt floor) is a good routine to get into. MD is not contagious to humans thankfully. But care with new breeding stock or chicks from reputable breeders who vaccinate their birds is important. Because this disease is so contagious it can travel through your flock of birds leaving them decimated within weeks. Prevention is an essential part of bird rearing management.

Marek's Disease Questions and Advice from Veterinary Professionals

Giselle
Maran
2 Days
Fair condition
0 found helpful
Fair condition

Has Symptoms

none

Is Mareks disease transmissible to parrots? I ask because we just acquired a 2 day old Maran chick from a reputable feed store and it's housed in the house for now. We also share our home with 3 healthy parrots and want to make sure everyone is safe and healthy. They are all housed separately.

Dr. Callum Turner, DVM
Dr. Callum Turner, DVM
2484 Recommendations
Marek’s Disease affects chickens and turkeys with other species of birds not being affected; however you should ensure that you are keeping good biosecurity practices which bringing in a new bird into your home or environment as other diseases may be found. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM www.merckvetmanual.com/poultry/neoplasms/marek’s-disease-in-poultry

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Bok Bok
chicken
2 Years
Serious condition
3 found helpful
Serious condition

Has Symptoms

Immobility

Our chicken appeared fine last night, but when we woke up this morning she was laying on her breasts with her left leg sticking out behind her. I picked her up and she is unable to maintain weight on the left leg. She is also gurgling when she breathes, and vomited once. Because she is unable to put weight on her leg, she cannot eat or get water.

Dr. Michele King, DVM
Dr. Michele King, DVM
1067 Recommendations
Since I cannot examine BokBok, or provide much assistance over an email, she should see a veterinarian. They will be able to examine her, determine what might be going on, and give her any treatments that she may need.

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Cookie
chicken
8 Days
Serious condition
0 found helpful
Serious condition

Has Symptoms

Eating good but pooing very little
Wings limp
Falling Over

Does my chick have this?? I just got some baby chicks and just yesterday one of them has been walking them falling over she is only 8 days old and when we got her she was 1.30 is them her weight has been fluctuating through out the few days she is now 1.45 and the others have gained 3x as much as her. We have seen the other chicks push her when she trys to stand up or peck at her. We have picked her up out of the cage and her wing was limp and hanging down. We have been feeding her hard boiled egg, and sugar probiotics water for the past 3 hours and no improment has happend we have separated her from the other chicks, still in the same cage but in a small box in the corner and she can't stand still and is kicking her legs from under her and scraping the bottom of the box all at the Same time laying down.

Dr. Callum Turner, DVM
Dr. Callum Turner, DVM
2484 Recommendations
Whilst there are similarities with Marek’s Disease and Newcastle Disease, it is unlikely that one bird would be showing symptoms whilst the others aren’t; numerous conditions may lead to similar symptoms including developmental disorders, slipped tendons, nutritional deficiency among other disorders. If Cookie isn’t gaining weight and is unable to move it may be best to cull, but this would be your choice. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM

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Rocco
Venda
4 Years
Fair condition
0 found helpful
Fair condition

Has Symptoms

Loss of Balance

In all my years of having chickens, I've never seen this. WHY would my rooster be losing his balance and falling over? He's a youngish Venda boy of about 4 years old. When he falls over, he struggles to get back up but he does. He waits at the back door at night so he can sleep inside in his box with some wood shavings. I'm worried about him, he's an amazing rooster, gentle and even plays with my one dog. He's eating, drinking, crowing as normal. he runs around, crows, covers my hens, eats drinks normally, poop is fine, just gets dizzy spells and falls over. i have checked his ears they are clean and clear. my chickens dont have mites or lice or anything. generally a healthy flock.

Dr. Callum Turner, DVM
Dr. Callum Turner, DVM
2484 Recommendations
From what you have described it doesn’t sound like the transient paralysis syndrome associated with Marek’s Disease; but if Rocco is otherwise in good health and is behaving normally apart from these episodes I cannot think of anything specific which may be causing these episodes. You should try to consult with an Avian Veterinarian for an examination to get to the bottom of this. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM

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Chicken
Battery
2 Years
Moderate condition
0 found helpful
Moderate condition

Has Symptoms

see above

In a year and a half had 3 hens display similar signs of illness. Wondering if it’s merricks. All lost weight, slowed down, slept or closed eyes , comb went black/ or pale puffed up their feathers , lost use of legs. Other hens seem fine and long periods between each bird getting symptoms ( a year from 1st to 3rd) . Any ideas. Vets here in Wales are very unhelpful when It comes to hens.

Dr. Michele King, DVM
Dr. Michele King, DVM
1067 Recommendations
Thank you for your email. It is possible that your chickens are showing signs of Merrick's disease. There is a vaccination for that disease, and you may have more luck consulting with a large animal veterinarian, or a bird specialist who will know more about chicken health concerns and preventive care.

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Hop
Silkie hen
4 Months
Moderate condition
1 found helpful
Moderate condition

Has Symptoms

Weakness

Hi, my hen is alert and has a good appetite, but unable to stand. This began three days ago where she was not able to put weight on one leg, now she can't stand at all. Can you please help? Thanks

Dr. Callum Turner, DVM
Dr. Callum Turner, DVM
2484 Recommendations
Most issues with chickens not putting weight on their feet occur under the age of six weeks and is normally attributable to perosis; some dietary deficiencies may also cause issues but most likely some trauma to the affected leg is the cause. For the time being, if there are no other symptoms ensure that Hop is on a sufficient diet and all rest; if there is no improvement over the next week or so I would drop in to your Veterinarian. Regards Dr Callum Turner DVM

I just got some baby chicks and just yesterday one of them has been walking them falling over she is only 8 days old and when we got her she was 1.30 is them her weight has been fluctuating through out the few days she is now 1.45 and the others have gained 3x as much as her. We have seen the other chicks push her when she trys to stand up or peck at her. We have picked her up out of the cage and her wing was limp and hanging down. We have been feeding her hard boiled egg, and sugar probiotics water for the past 3 hours and no improment has happend we have separated her from the other chicks, still in the same cage but in a small box in the corner and she can't stand still and is kicking her legs from under her and scraping the bottom of the box all at the Same time laying down.

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