The Cairnese is a hybrid mix of the Cairn Terrier and the Havanese. The hybrid is a new dog and does not have a history outside of its parent breeds, but hybrid breeders suggest the two parents have been purposefully crossbred since the 1990s. Currently, there is little information on the mix and owners should review the histories and character traits of the parent breeds to better understand the possible dispositions and traits of the Cairnese. The Cairn is an old and ancient breed of Scotch Terriers that was only developed a separate breed in the 19th century and distinguished from its other Scotch Terrier brothers by coat color. The ancestor of the Cairn Terrier, the Scotch Terrier, was first described in 55 BC by the Romans who identified the small dogs as agile hunters that went to the ground after their quarry. The Romans named these dogs Terrarii, which is Latin for workers of the earth. Over several centuries, the Terrier group lived and thrived as earth dogs in Scotland and England, making their way to France and parts of Germany as well. By the 1900s, the Cairn Terrier was firmly established as a wire-haired small Terrier of the Skye group in various colors, accepting white, which was designated for its cousin breed, the West Highland Terrier. The Cairn is often confused for the Scottish Terrier, but the Scottie has a more diverse genetic makeup, having a large gene pool history whereas the Cairn Terrier was limited the Isle of Skye. The Cairn acquired its name from the stone monuments of the same name the little Terrier was known to hunt. The Havanese is a rare breed developed in Cuba. Bichon-type dogs were brought to the Cuban Isles by Spanish settlers in the 15th Century and developed for hundreds of years, isolated on Cuba. By the mid-1900s the breed was popular among Cuban aristocrats and caught the attention of Europeans who imported the breed. The Cuban Revolution threatened to bring this breed to extinction, and all modern-day Havanese dogs living outside of Cuba can be traced to only 11 distinct dogs. The American Kennel Club officially recognized the Havanese in 1996.